Adhesion of Epiphany self-etch sealer to dentin treated with intracanal irrigating solutions.
ABSTRACT This in vitro study assessed the adhesion of Epiphany self-etch (SE) root canal sealer to dentin treated with different irrigation regimens.
Flat dentin surfaces were obtained from human third molar teeth; smear layer was created on each sample. Five groups of 10 samples each were conditioned with one of the following regimens: (1) deionized water for 10 minutes; (2) 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 10 minutes; (3) 5% NaOCl for 10 minutes and then 10% sodium ascorbate (Na-Ascr) for 10 minutes; (4) 5% NaOCl for 10 minutes and then 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) for 5 minutes; or (5) 5% NaOCl for 10 minutes and then 10% Na-Ascr for 10 minutes, followed by 2% CHX for 5 minutes. The conditioned dentin surfaces were dried with absorbent paper points. The Epiphany SE sealer was placed on each dentin surface with the use of hollow stainless steel tubes with specific diameter and height. The samples were stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 7 days and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine.
Shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests (P < .05). There were statistically significant differences among the groups.
NaOCl decreased the bond strength of Epiphany SE sealer to dentin, whereas the use of Na-Ascr reversed this negative effect of NaOCl. CHX had neither negative nor positive influence on the bond strength.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of iron (Fe) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) arsenic (As) phytotoxicity towards lettuce in artificial soils were investigated to separate the adverse soil parameters relating to As toxicity using a response surface methodology. SMS induced the root elongation of lettuce in both control and As-treated soils. However, in phytotoxicity test using a median effective concentration (EC(50)) of As, Fe and the interaction between both parameters (Fe*SMS) significantly affected EC(50), which explained 71% and 23% of the response, respectively. The refined model was as follows: EC(50) of As (mgkg(-1))=10.99+60.03 × Fe-10.50 × Fe*SMS. The results confirmed that the soil parameters relating to the As mobility in soils were important factors affecting its toxicity. In conclusion, Fe significantly reduced the As phytotoxicity. However, although SMS enhanced the root elongation, SMS in As-treated soils decreased EC(50) of As on the root growth via its interaction with Fe. Despite the limitations of the artificial soils and range of parameters studied, the application of this statistical tool can be considered a powerful and efficient technique for interpretation and prediction of the complicated results caused by the interactions between many factors within the soil environments.Journal of hazardous materials 05/2011; 192(1):381-7. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in endodontic materials and techniques are at the forefront of endodontic research. Despite continuous improvements, tooth discolouration, especially in anterior teeth, is considered an undesirable consequence following endodontic treatment as it creates a range of aesthetic problems. This article aims to discuss the intrinsic and internalized tooth discolouration caused by endodontic procedures, and to address the discolouration potential of materials used during root canal treatment, including root canal irrigants, intracanal medicaments, endodontic and post-endodontic filling materials. In addition, the discolouration patterns caused by combined endodontic and nonendodontic aetiological factors are discussed. The recommended guidelines that should be followed by dental practitioners to prevent and manage tooth discolouration are also outlined.International Endodontic Journal 10/2012; 45(10):883-897. · 2.05 Impact Factor