Traumatic brain injury can cause numerous behavioral abnormalities including aggression, violence, impulsivity, and apathy, factors that can be associated with criminal behavior and incarceration. To better characterize the association between traumatic brain injury and incarceration, we pooled reported frequencies of lifetime traumatic brain injury of any severity among incarcerated samples and compared the pooled frequency to estimates of the lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the general population. We found a significantly higher prevalence of traumatic brain injury in the incarcerated groups compared to the general population. As such, there appears to be an association between traumatic brain injury and incarceration.
"risk of Alzheimer's disease and aging-related cognitive decline (Farrer et al. 1997a, b; Wisdom et al. 2011). Among normally aging adults, individuals with ε4 allele display deficits on multiple assessments of executive function (Lee et al. 2011; Ryan et al. 2011; Swan et al. 2005) In a metaanalysis , (Small et al. 2004) concluded that the APOE ε4 genotype accounted for a small, but significant, magnitude of executive function impairment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is variable, even for patients with similar severity of brain injury. Recent research has highlighted the contribution that genetic predisposition plays in determining TBI outcome. This review considers the potential for genetic polymorphisms to influence recovery of cognitive and social processes following TBI. Limitations and considerations that researchers should make when assessing the potential impact of polymorphisms on TBI outcome are also discussed. Understanding the genetic factors that support neuroplasticity will contribute to an understanding of the variation in outcome following injury and help to identify potential targets for rehabilitation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adult populations demonstrate that such injuries can lead to aggressive behaviors. Related findings suggest that incarcerated individuals have high rates of brain injuries. Such studies suggest that traumatic brain injury may be related to the etiology and recidivism of criminal behavior. Relatively few studies have examined the prevalence of TBI using a delinquent juvenile sample. In order to assess the relationship between TBI and juvenile offender status, the current study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the odds of having a TBI among juvenile offenders. Across 9 studies, we found that approximately 30% of juvenile offenders have sustained a previous brain injury. Across 5 studies that used a control group, a calculated summary odds ratio of 3.37 suggests that juvenile offenders are significantly more likely to have a TBI compared to controls. Results suggest that the rate of TBIs within the juvenile offender population is significant and that there may be a relationship between TBIs and juvenile criminal behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. Several risk factors are associated with IPV perpetuation, including alcohol use and educational level. The aggression and violence associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggest that brain trauma may also be a risk factor for IPV. To examine the association between TBI and IPV, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed published studies reporting the prevalence of TBI in IPV perpetrators. The authors compared the frequency of TBI among IPV perpetuators to estimates of TBI in the general population using a single-sample test of proportions. Six studies containing a total of 222 subjects met inclusion criteria. Fifty-three percent (119) of the IPV perpetuators had a history of TBI, a prevalence significantly higher (p < .0001) than estimates of TBI in the general population. The prevalence of TBI among perpetuators of IPV appears significantly higher than the prevalence of TBI in the general population. To the extent that this association is causal, TBI may be a risk factor for interpersonal violence, although comparatively few source studies, lack of standardized information about TBI severity, and the inability to investigate potential confounding variables necessarily limit this conclusion.
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