Article

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wildlife: common parasites in Belgian foxes and Cervidae?

Scientific Institute of Public Health, Communicable and Infectious Diseases, National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, Engelandstraat 642, B1180 Brussels, Belgium.
Veterinary Parasitology (Impact Factor: 2.38). 12/2010; 178(1-2):64-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.12.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sera from Cervidae were tested for the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum using ELISA; and against Toxoplasma gondii using SAG1-ELISA and a commercially available agglutination test. The T. gondii seroprevalence was 52% (38/73) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 0% in bred fallow deer (0/4) (Dama dama) and red deer (0/7) (Cervus elaphus). We found 2.7% of the roe deer samples and none of the bred deer samples positive for N. caninum. Brain samples from wild roe deer, red deer and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were tested for the presence of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA using multiplex real-time PCR. We detected T. gondii in 18.8% (57/304) of the red foxes and in 1 of the 33 deer samples. N. caninum was found in 6.6% of the red foxes and in 2 roe deer samples. Twenty-six of the T. gondii positive DNA extracts from the red fox samples were genotyped. Twenty-five were type II and only one was found to be type III.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
193 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bovine neosporosis control programs are currently based on herd management and serodiagnosis because effective treatments and vaccines are unavailable. Although a wide variety of serological tools have been developed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the most commonly commercialized tests. Partial comparative studies have been performed in the past, and the panel of available ELISAs has notably changed in the last few years. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are requesting updated information about the performance of these tests. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare all of the commercially available ELISAs (n=10) by evaluating their performance and to re-standardize them based on TG-ROC analyses when necessary. For this purpose, a well-characterized serum panel from experimentally and naturally infected bovines and non-infected bovines (n=458) was used. Two different definitions of gold standard were considered: (i) the result of the majority of tests and (ii) pre-test information based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data. Most of the tests displayed high sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) values when both gold standard criteria were considered. Furthermore, all the tests showed near perfect agreement, with the exception of the pair-wise comparisons that included the VMRD and SVANOVIR. The best-adjusted ELISAs were the HIPRA-CIVTEST, IDVET, BIOVET and IDEXX Rum (Se and Sp>95%). After the TG-ROC analyses, higher Se and Sp values were obtained for the BIO-X, LSI Bov, LSI Rum and IDEXX Bov, though the increases were more significant for the SVANOVIR and VMRD. The Kappa values also increased with the new adjusted cut-offs. This is the first study that offers updated performance evaluations of commercially available ELISAs. Such analyses are essential for diagnostic laboratories and are valuable to the companies that develop and distribute these tests.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2013; · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that is able to infect almost all warm blooded animals. In Europe, the domestic cat is the main definitive host. Worldwide, 6 billion people are infected with this parasite. The goal of our research is to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in wild animals from a previously unsampled area in Northern Italy where 0.1% of women seroconvert during pregnancy each year. We sampled and tested skeletal muscle and central nervous system tissue of 355 wild animals by PCR (n = 121 roe deer Capreolus capreolus, n = 105 wild boar Sus scrofa, n = 94 red fox Vulpes vulpes, n = 22 alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, n = 13 red deer Cervus elaphus). The overall prevalence of infection with T. gondii was 10.99% (confidence interval (CI) 95% 8.14%-14.67%). A higher rate of infection was recorded in carnivores and omnivores (red fox 20.21%, CI 95% 13.34%-29.43%; wild boar 16.19%, CI 95% 10.36%-24.41%) compared to ruminants (2.48%, CI 95% 0.85%-7.04% in roe deer; 0.00%, CI 95% 0.00%-22.81% in red deer, and 0.00% alpine chamois (CI 95% 0.00%-14.87%) confirming the importance of tissue cysts in transmitting infection. The relatively high prevalence of T. gondii DNA in highly consumed game species (wild boar and roe deer) gives valuable insights into T. gondii epidemiology and may contribute to improve prevention and control of foodborne toxoplasmosis in humans.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2014; 7(1):196. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A generic two-step lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), based on a nested PCR strategy, was validated for the detection of different lyssavirus species. Primers with 17 to 30% of degenerate bases were used in both consecutive steps. The assay could accurately detect RABV, LBV, MOKV, DUVV, EBLV-1, EBLV-2, and ABLV. In silico sequence alignment showed a functional match with the remaining lyssavirus species. The diagnostic specificity was 100% and the sensitivity proved to be superior to that of the fluorescent antigen test. The limit of detection was ≤1 50% tissue culture infectious dose. The related vesicular stomatitis virus was not recognized, confirming the selectivity for lyssaviruses. The assay was applied to follow the evolution of rabies virus infection in the brain of mice from 0 to 10 days after intranasal inoculation. The obtained RNA curve corresponded well with the curves obtained by a one-step monospecific RABV-qRT-PCR, the fluorescent antigen test, and virus titration. Despite the presence of degenerate bases, the assay proved to be highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:256175.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
47 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014