Factors of osteogenesis influencing various human stem cells on third-generation gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold material.
ABSTRACT Human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used to regenerate bone. Both sources are claimed to have comparable osteogenic potential, but few comparative studies are available. Third-generation biomaterials have been developed to reduce steps in regenerating tissues. For osteogenesis gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with incorporated controlled-release bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) as third-generation biomaterials were recently developed. So far, few studies on protein-induced osteogenesis versus chemical-induced osteogenesis have been performed. This study evaluates the osteogenic potential of hBMSCs versus hASCs derived on gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds in vitro under four different conditions. Gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds with and without incorporated controlled-release BMP-2 were seeded with hBMSCs or hASCs under oscillating fluid conditions in osteogenic (OS) medium or growth medium (GM). All were evaluated radiologically (computed tomography [CT] scan), histologically, biomechanically, and for gene expression at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The highest radiological densities were seen in specimens at 6 weeks with controlled-release BMP-2, close to native bone. HBMSCs, hASCs, OS, and GM conditions resulted in similar bone formation with gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds and incorporated controlled-release BMP-2. This was confirmed histologically by Toluidine Blue and van Kossa staining and biomechanically. Gene expression studies of these specimens showed the presence of preosteoblasts, transitory osteoblasts, and secretory osteoblasts. Specimens comprised of gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds without incorporated controlled release BMP-2 in OS medium showed lesser bone formation. hASCs and hBMSCs have similar osteogenic potential. hASCs are an attractive alternative to hBMSCs for bone regeneration using third-generation gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds with incorporated controlled-release BMP-2.