Cerebral microbleeds are predictive of mortality in the elderly.
ABSTRACT To investigate the prognostic value of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) regarding overall, cardiovascular-related, and stroke-related mortality and to investigate possible differences based on a cerebral amyloid angiopathy-type and nonlobar distribution of microbleeds.
We included 435 subjects who were participants from the nested MRI substudy of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the risk of overall, cardiovascular-related, and stroke-related death associated with microbleeds in general and microbleeds with a lobar distribution suggestive of the presence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The corresponding Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated.
Subjects with >1 CMB had a 6-fold risk of stroke-related death compared to subjects without CMB (hazard ratio, 5.97; 95% CI, 1.60-22.26; P=0.01). The diagnosis of nonlobar microbleeds was associated with >2-fold risk of cardiovascular death compared to subjects without microbleeds (hazard ratio, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.23-5.81; P=0.01). Subjects with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy-type microbleeds had >7-fold risk of stroke-related death compared to subjects without CMB (hazard ratio, 7.20; 95% CI, 1.44-36.10; P=0.02).
This is the first study investigating the association between microbleeds and risk of overall, cardiovascular-related, and stroke-related mortality in an elderly population. Our findings indicate that the diagnosis of microbleeds is potentially of clinical relevance. Larger studies are needed to expand our observations and to address potential clinical implications and cost-benefits of such a policy.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Stella Trompet, Jan 22, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral microbleeds (MBs) are small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain. Owing to the paramagnetic properties of blood degradation products, MBs can be detected in vivo by using specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Over the last decades, the implementation of these MRI sequences in both epidemiological and clinical studies has revealed MBs as a common finding in many different populations, including healthy individuals. Also, the topographic distribution of these MBs has been shown to be potentially associated with specific underlying vasculopathies. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of these small hemorrhages is still a matter of debate as well as a focus of extensive research. In this article, we aim to review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology and clinical implications of MBs, with special emphasis on the links between lobar MBs, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Alzheimer’s disease.Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 06/2014; 6(33). DOI:10.1186/alzrt263 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Susceptibility-weighted and gradient-recalled echo T2* magnetic resonance imaging have enabled the detection of very small foci of blood within the brain, which have been termed "cerebral microbleeds." These petechial intraparenchymal hemorrhages have begun to emerge as diagnostically and prognostically useful markers in a variety of disease states. Severe hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are perhaps the best established microhemorrhagic conditions from neuroimaging literature; however, many others are also recognized including cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), moyamoya disease, fat embolism, cerebral malaria, and infective endocarditis. Microbleeds are also a common finding in the setting of trauma and stroke. The purpose of this review is to broadly describe the neuroimaging of cerebral microbleeds in a wide variety of conditions, including the differences in their appearance and distribution in different disease states. In a few situations, the presence of microbleeds may influence clinical management, and we discuss these situations in detail. The major importance of this emerging field in neuroimaging is the potential to identify microvascular pathology at an asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic stage and create a window of therapeutic opportunity.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 10/2014; 23(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.07.006 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure and cognitive function in old age (>70 years). Prospective cohort study. PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) study, a collaboration between centres in Ireland, Scotland, and the Netherlands. 5461 participants, mean age 75.3 years, who were at risk of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure was measured every three months during an average of 3.2 years. Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure was defined as the standard deviation of blood pressure measurements between visits. Four domains of cognitive function, testing selective attention, processing speed, and immediate and delayed memory. In a magnetic resonance imaging substudy of 553 participants, structural brain volumes, cerebral microbleeds, infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities were measured. Participants with higher visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure had worse performance on all cognitive tests: attention (mean difference high versus low thirds) 3.08 seconds (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 5.31), processing speed -1.16 digits coded (95% confidence interval -1.69 to -0.63), immediate memory -0.27 pictures remembered (95% confidence interval -0.41 to -0.13), and delayed memory -0.30 pictures remembered (95% confidence interval -0.49 to -0.11). Furthermore, higher variability in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was associated with lower hippocampal volume and cortical infarcts, and higher variability in diastolic blood pressure was associated with cerebral microbleeds (all P<0.05). All associations were adjusted for average blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors. Higher visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure independent of average blood pressure was associated with impaired cognitive function in old age.BMJ (online) 07/2013; 347:f4600. DOI:10.1136/bmj.f4600 · 16.38 Impact Factor