Significance of blood-related high-risk behaviors and horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Iran.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and approximately 30% of the world's population is infected with HBV. The objective of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and major risk factors associated with its occurrence. Four thousand eighty-seven healthy Iranian subjects aged 8-80 years were screened for HBV serological markers by an enzyme immunoassay method. A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. Multiple logistic regression, an unpaired t-test for continuous data and the χ (2) test for categorical data were performed. A total of 4087 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), of which 62 (1.5%) were seropositive. Fifteen percent of the subjects were positive for anti-HBs, 6.3% were positive for isolated anti-HBc and 12.5% were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Laborers showed a higher HBsAg(+) seroprevalence and risk compared with jobless participants (Pearson's = 8.276, P = 0.004; OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5-11.2). Bivariate logistic regression revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity: phlebotomy (P = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.1-11.9), tattooing (P = 0.003; OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.0), intravenous drug use (P = 0.001; OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1). The adjusted prevalence ratios remained significantly associated with HBV seropositivity and thus likely served as possible risk factors for HBV. The overall positive seroprevalence was 1.5%. Among the variables, only phlebotomy, tattooing and intravenous drug injection emerged as major potential risk factors for hepatitis B infection and responsible for transmission of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood donation modes on the prevalence of viral markers among Arab first-time blood donors in Kuwait. Donor ethnic background was classified as Kuwaiti nationals and non-Kuwaiti Arabs. A total of 26,874 donors were screened in 2002 for the following viral markers: hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc), human immunodeficiency virus-1 and -2 antibody (anti-HIV-1 and -2), HIV p24, and human T lymphotropic virus-I and -II antibody (anti-HTLVI/II). All samples positive for the presence of anti-HBc were tested for anti-HBs. Among these donors, 12,798 were first-time donors of which 74 percent were replacement and 26 percent were volunteers. The prevalence of HCV among replacement donors was significantly higher than the volunteer group. The difference between the two modes of blood donations, however, was not significant for HBsAg. The prevalence of anti-HCV among Kuwaiti national and non-Kuwaiti Arab first-time donors was 0.8 and 5.4 percent, respectively, whereas the prevalence of HBsAg was 1.1 and 3.5 percent, respectively, with the difference being significant at a p level of <0.0001. The difference observed for prevalence of anti-HBc among Kuwaiti national and non-Kuwaiti Arab donors (17 and 33.3%, respectively) was significant (p < 0.0001). Among first-time donors, 13.7 percent were positive for the presence of anti-HBs, indicating that 13.7 percent of the total Arab donor population might have had a previous infection and possible immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV). A high prevalence of HBV and HCV was found among non-Kuwaiti Arab donors. The prevalence of anti-HCV was only significantly higher among replacement versus volunteer first-time donors. Therefore, there is a need to develop a strategic plan that incorporates the diverse background of the blood donors living in Kuwait.Transfusion 01/2006; 45(12):1973-80. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2003; 289(8):959-62. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An epidemic of icteric hepatitis in 1942 affected approximately 50,000 U.S. Army personnel. This outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum. To identify the responsible virus and the consequences of the epidemic, during 1985 we interviewed and serologically screened 597 veterans who had been in the army in 1942. These subjects were selected from three groups. Group I consisted of patients who had received the implicated vaccine and had jaundice; Group II had received the implicated vaccine but remained well; Group III had received a new, serum-free vaccine, with no subsequent jaundice. Ninety-seven percent of Group I, 76 percent of Group II, and 13 percent of Group III were positive for antibodies to hepatitis B virus. Only one subject had hepatitis B surface antigen, for a carrier rate of 0.26 percent among recipients of the implicated vaccine. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody was similar in all three groups, and no subject had antibody to hepatitis delta virus. We conclude that hepatitis B caused the outbreak, that about 330,000 persons may have been infected, that the hepatitis B virus carrier state was a rare consequence, and that the outbreak induced hepatitis B antibodies that appear to persist for life.New England Journal of Medicine 05/1987; 316(16):965-70. · 51.66 Impact Factor