Significance of blood-related high-risk behaviors and horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Iran.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and approximately 30% of the world's population is infected with HBV. The objective of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and major risk factors associated with its occurrence. Four thousand eighty-seven healthy Iranian subjects aged 8-80 years were screened for HBV serological markers by an enzyme immunoassay method. A structured questionnaire was administered to all participants. Multiple logistic regression, an unpaired t-test for continuous data and the χ (2) test for categorical data were performed. A total of 4087 participants were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), of which 62 (1.5%) were seropositive. Fifteen percent of the subjects were positive for anti-HBs, 6.3% were positive for isolated anti-HBc and 12.5% were positive for both anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Laborers showed a higher HBsAg(+) seroprevalence and risk compared with jobless participants (Pearson's = 8.276, P = 0.004; OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.5-11.2). Bivariate logistic regression revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with HBV seropositivity: phlebotomy (P = 0.002; OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.1-11.9), tattooing (P = 0.003; OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.0), intravenous drug use (P = 0.001; OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1). The adjusted prevalence ratios remained significantly associated with HBV seropositivity and thus likely served as possible risk factors for HBV. The overall positive seroprevalence was 1.5%. Among the variables, only phlebotomy, tattooing and intravenous drug injection emerged as major potential risk factors for hepatitis B infection and responsible for transmission of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Primary health care (PHC) physicians will be in the forefront of managing hepatitis B (HBV) patients. In Saudi Arabia, very little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practice of PHC physicians towards HBV. This study aimed to assess the same parameters.BMC Research Notes 05/2014; 7(1):288. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-288
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ABSTRACT: Medical students represent a population that is at high-risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. During March 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students of AlJouf University College of Medicine. Structured questionnaires of 16 different statements concerning knowledge base of HBV, attitudes as well as practices toward occupational risks of hepatitis B were distributed to 120 students. Response rate of 76.7% (92/120) yielded 92 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of the students surveyed 62.0% (57/92) perceived that they are at high risk of contracting and spreading HBV. The rate of this perception among students who had a history of training on universal precautions was more than that found among those who did not have (70.8% vs. 58.8%; P < 0.01). Most of the students surveyed 63.0% (58/92) considered vaccine is safe and more than half 52.2% (48/92) were vaccinated against HBV. There were a very strong agreement about needlestick 92.4% (85/92) and blood 87.0% (80/92) as efficient modes of HBV transmission. Seventy-two percent of the participants did not have any knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B. A significant relationship was found between students who had a history of training on universal precautions and knowledge about post needlestick injury (P < 0.01). Infectious occupational risk of hepatitis B remains a challenge for medical students and the foundations of the medical institutes. Students must complete an infection control training before they start their clinical education.
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ABSTRACT: AIDS and hepatitis are two of the most important health issues in the world. Adolescents and individuals in their reproductive years are important population for interventions in order to reduce high risk behaviors for transmission of sexually transmitted disease. However the prevalence of AIDS and hepatitis B and C is high in Bandar Abbas, no study is available about high risk behaviors related to these diseases in Bandar Abbas. The aim of the current study was to investigate high risk behaviors related to AIDS and hepatitis B and C among 15- to 45 year old individuals in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran. In this analytical study, 1938 participants between 15- and 45 years of age in Bandar Abbas in 2012 were selected to participate in this study. For each individual, the following information was sought: shared syringes, phlebotomy, tattoos, prisoning, drug abuse, amphetamine, alcohol, smoking, unsafe sexual contacts, as well as demographic information including age, sex, marital status, and education level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, United States) using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. A total of 8.4% reported having had tattoos; 10.3% reported previous phlebotomy. Individuals with prison history included 7.3% of our study population and their mean age was 31.4 years. Unsafe sexual contact was reported in 10.7% of the study sample. High risk behaviors were more common among individuals with a low educational level, and in alcohol users and amphetamine users (P<0.05). High risk behaviors are more common among individuals in their reproductive years. Increasing educational level and knowledge translation are effective in preventing AIDS and hepatitis high risk behaviors.Electronic Physician 07/2014; 6(3):884-9. DOI:10.14661/2014.883-889