Efficacy according to biomarker status of cetuximab plus FOLFOX-4 as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: the OPUS study.
ABSTRACT The randomized phase II OPUS (Oxaliplatin and Cetuximab in First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) study showed that tumor KRAS mutation status was predictive for outcome in patients receiving cetuximab plus FOLFOX-4 (oxaliplatin/5-fluorouracil/folinic acid) as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
The biomarker analysis was extended through the use of additional DNA samples extracted from stained tissue sections. KRAS and BRAF tumor mutation status was determined for new (and for BRAF, existing) samples using a PCR technique. Clinical outcome was reassessed according to mutation status. Overall survival data are presented.
Of 315 KRAS evaluable patient samples (93%), 179 tumors (57%) were KRAS wild type. Eleven of 309 (4%) KRAS/BRAF evaluable tumors (all KRAS wild type) carried BRAF mutations. The addition of cetuximab to FOLFOX-4 significantly improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio 0.567, P = 0.0064) and response (odds ratio 2.551, P = 0.0027) in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. A favorable effect on survival was also observed.
These results confirm the efficacy of cetuximab plus FOLFOX-4 in the first-line treatment of patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC and confirm KRAS mutation status as an effective predictive biomarker. The small number of tumors with BRAF mutations precluded the drawing of definitive conclusions concerning the predictive or prognostic utility of this biomarker.
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ABSTRACT: This phase II study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biweekly cetuximab in combination with oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and fluorouracil (FOLFOX-4) as first-line treatment of metastatic wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer. Previously untreated patients with wild-type KRAS tumours received biweekly cetuximab (500 mg/m2 on day 1) plus FOLFOX-4 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1, leucovorin 200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2, and fluorouracil as a 400 mg/m2 bolus followed by a 22-hour 600 mg/m2 infusion on day 1 and 2). Treatment was continued until disease progression, onset of unacceptable toxicities, metastases surgery, or discontinuation request. The primary endpoint was ORR. The intention-to-treat population included 99 patients with a median age of 64.1 years (range, 34-82). The ORR was 60.6% (95%CI, 50.3% to 70.3%). The median follow-up was 17.8 months; the median OS and PFS were 20.8 and 10.1 months, respectively. Metastases from colorectal cancer were surgically resected in 26 (26.3%) patients, with complete resection achieved in 18 (69.2%) patients. Median PFS and OS in patients undergoing metastatic resection were 12.6 and 29.5 months, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (32.3%), acne-like rash (15.2%) and diarrhoea (11.1%). The efficacy of the biweekly combination of cetuximab with FOLFOX-4 in patients with wild-type KRAS tumours supports the administration of cetuximab in a dosing regimen more convenient for patients and healthcare providers. The activity of the biweekly administration is similar to what has been reported for the weekly regimen. Reported toxicity was also consistent with the known toxicity profile of weekly cetuximab.Trial registration: EudraCT Number 200800690916.BMC Cancer 11/2014; 14(1):865. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systematic analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway revealed that biomarkers could be used to predict the response to and outcome of anti-EGFR therapies in patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer. We have conducted a review on the most recent findings and advances on this topic. To this aim, we searched the PubMed database for articles devoted to predictive and prognostic biomarkers for patients administered cetuximab- and panitumumab-based therapies. Here we review the state of the art and the controversies about the molecular factors known to be predictors of the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapy, namely, KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PI3KCA and PTEN, and we discuss their prognostic value in colorectal cancer patients.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 08/2014; 20(29):9732-9743.
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ABSTRACT: The FOLFOXIRI regimen (irinotecan, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil [5-FU] and folinic acid [FA]) increased the response rate and overall survival compared to FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Adding cetuximab to FOLFOX or FOLFIRI increased efficacy in patients with k-ras wild type mCRC. We explored the dose limiting toxicity and feasibility of the combination cetuximab, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, 5-FU and FA in mCRC patients.BMC Cancer 07/2014; 14(1):521. · 3.33 Impact Factor