Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic

Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.03). 01/2011; 119(6):860-5. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1002353
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.
We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.
We identified 592 lung cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry among 52,970 members of the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort and traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 in the Central Population Registry. We calculated the NOx concentration at each address by dispersion models and calculated the time-weighted average concentration for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.
For the highest compared with the lowest quartile of NOx concentration at the residence, we found an IRR for lung cancer of 1.30 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.61], and the IRR for lung cancer in association with living within 50 m of a major road (>10,000 vehicles/day) was 1.21 (95% CI, 0.95-1.55). The results showed tendencies of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.
This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air pollution from traffic near the residence.


Available from: Steen Solvang Jensen, Jun 09, 2015
  • Environment International 03/2015; 78. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.016 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association between ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution can cause lung cancer. Biomarkers can enhance research on the health effects of air pollution by improving exposure assessment, increasing the understanding of mechanisms, and enabling the investigation of individual susceptibility. In this review, we assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to AAP and early biological effect, and DNA methylation as biomarker of early biological change and discuss critical issues arising from their incorporation in AAP health impact evaluations, such as confounding, individual susceptibilities, timing, intensity and duration of exposure, and investigated tissue. DNA adducts and DNA methylation are treated as paradigms. However, the lessons, learned from their use in the examination of AAP carcinogenicity, can be applied to investigations of other biomarkers involved in AAP carcinogenicity.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated variations in perceptions of air quality as a function of residential proximity to busy highways, across two suburbs of South Auckland, New Zealand. While plenty is known about the spatial gradients of highway emissions, very little is known about variation of lay understanding at the fine spatial scale and whether there are gradients in severity of concerns. One-hundred and four near-highway residents agreed to participate in a semi-structured interview on their knowledge and attitudes towards highway traffic emissions. Proximity to the highway edge varied within 5–380 m at the predominantly downwind side of the highway and 13–483 m at the upwind side. Likert-type ordered response questions were analysed using multivariate regression. Inverse linear relationships were identified for distance from highway and measures of concern for health impacts, as well as for noise (p<0.05). Positive linear relationships were identified for distance from highway and ratings of both outdoor and indoor air quality (p<0.05). Measures of level of income had no conclusive statistically significant effect on perceptions. Additional discussion was made surrounding participant's open-ended responses, within the context of limited international research. Findings indicate that there may be quantifiable psychological benefits of separating residents just a short distance (40 m) from highways and that living within such close proximity can be detrimental to well-being by restricting local outdoor activity. This work lends additional rationale for a residential separation buffer of ~100 m alongside major highways in the interests of protecting human health.
    Health & Place 01/2015; 31:154-162. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.12.005 · 2.44 Impact Factor