Cypermethrin induced alterations in nitrogen metabolism in freshwater fishes
ABSTRACT In the present study, two fresh water fishes namely, Channa punctatus and Clarias batrachus, were exposed to three sub-acute concentrations of synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, for 96 h to evaluate the role of amino acids in fulfilling the immediate energy needs of fishes under pyrethroid induced stress as well as to find out the mechanism of ammonia detoxification. The experiments were designed to estimate the levels of free amino acid, urea, ammonia and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alanine aminotransferase (AlAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and arginase in some of the vital organs like brain, gills, liver, kidney and muscle of both fish species. The significant decrease in the levels of amino acids concomitant with remarkable increase in the activities of AAT, AlAT and GDH in these vital tissues of fish species elucidated the amino acid catabolism as one of the main mechanism of meeting out the immediate energy demand of the fishes in condition of cypermethrin exposure. The levels of ammonia were significantly increased at 10% of 96 h LC(50) of cypermethrin in the different organs such as brain, gills, liver, kidney and muscle of both fish species while 15% and 20% concentrations of 96 h LC(50) of cypermehrin registered remarkable decline in both fish species. The differential increment in the activities of GDH, GS and arginase and in the level of urea established three different alternative mechanisms of ammonia detoxification. The results indicated that in C. punctatus, the prevalent mode of nitrogen excretion is in the form of conversion of ammonia into glutamine and glutamate while in C. batrachus, the excessive nitrogen is excreted in the form of urea synthesized from ammonia.
SourceAvailable from: Walery Zukow
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ABSTRACT: The indiscriminate use of pesticides and herbicides to enhance crop production has aroused great concern, because these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. Cypermethrin (CYP), a type II pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture and for other purposes. Therefore a study was conducted for the assessment of cytotoxic, genotoxic and oxidative stress of CYP in IEG, CB, ICG, LRG and CSG cell lines at 24h exposure. The cytotoxic effect of CYP in IEG, CB, ICG, LRG and CSG cell lines was assessed using MTT, NR, AB and CB assays. Linear correlations between each EC50 values, of CYP resulting in 50% inhibition of cytotoxicity parameters after 24h exposure to CYP were calculated for IEG, CB, ICG, LRG and CSG cell lines using MTT, NR, AB and CB assays. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with R(2)=0.90-0.939 for all combinations between endpoints employed. The percentage of DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in IEG, CB, ICG, LRG and CSG cells exposed to CYP. The results of antioxidant parameters obtained show a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in IEG, CB, ICG, LRG and CSG cell lines after exposure to increasing CYP in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used not only for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies but also for studying oxidative stress when exposed to environmental contaminants such as pesticides and other pollutants.Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.06.006 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions.BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014:928063. DOI:10.1155/2014/928063 · 2.71 Impact Factor