Frequent concomitant inactivation of miR-34a and miR-34b/c by CpG methylation in colorectal, pancreatic, mammary, ovarian, urothelial, and renal cell carcinomas and soft tissue sarcomas.
ABSTRACT The microRNA encoding genes miR-34a and miR-34b/c represent direct p53 target genes and possess tumor suppressive properties as they mediate apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence. We previously reported that the miR-34a gene is subject to epigenetic inactivation by CpG methylation of its promoter region in primary prostate cancer and melanomas, and in 110 different cancer cell lines of diverse origin. Here we analyzed the methylation status of miR-34a and miR-34b/c in additional primary tumors of divergent sites. We found methylation of miR-34a or miR-34b/c in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples from 178 patients with the following frequencies: colorectal cancer (74% miR-34a, 99% miR-34b/c; n = 114), pancreatic cancer (64%, 100%; n = 11), mammary cancer (60%, 90%; n = 10), ovarian cancer (62%, 69%; n = 13), urothelial cancer (71%, 57%; n = 7), and renal cell cancer (58%, 100%; n = 12). Furthermore, soft tissue sarcomas showed methylation of miR-34 gene promoters in FFPE samples (64%, 45%; n = 11), in explanted, cultured cells (53%, 40%; n = 40), and in frozen tissue samples (75%, 75%, n = 8). In the colorectal cancer samples a statistically significant correlation of miR-34a methylation and the absence of p53 mutation was detected. With the exception of sarcoma cell lines, the inactivation of miR-34a and miR-34b/c was concomitant in most cases. These results show that miR-34 inactivation is a common event in tumor formation, and suggest that CpG methylation of miR-34a and miR-34-b/c may have diagnostic value. The mutual exclusiveness of miR-34a methylation and p53 mutation indicates that miR-34a inactivation may substitute for loss of p53 function in cancer.
Article: Extensive promoter DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation is associated with aberrant microRNA expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression contributes to the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, an understanding of the mechanisms that cause aberrant miRNA transcriptional control is lacking. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the role and extent of miRNA epigenetic regulation in CLL. Genome-wide profiling conducted on 24 CLL and 10 healthy B cell samples revealed global DNA methylation patterns upstream of miRNA sequences that distinguished malignant from healthy cells and identified putative miRNA promoters. Integration of DNA methylation and miRNA promoter data led to the identification of 128 recurrent miRNA targets for aberrant promoter DNA methylation. DNA hypomethylation accounted for more than 60% of all aberrant promoter-associated DNA methylation in CLL, and promoter DNA hypomethylation was restricted to well-defined regions. Individual hyper- and hypomethylated promoters allowed discrimination of CLL samples from healthy controls. Promoter DNA methylation patterns were confirmed in an independent patient cohort, with 11 miRNAs consistently showing an inverse correlation between DNA methylation status and expression level. Together, our findings characterize the role of epigenetic changes in the regulation of miRNA transcription and create a repository of disease-specific promoter regions that may provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of CLL.Cancer Research 06/2012; 72(15):3775-85. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Genome-wide characterization of miR-34a induced changes in protein and mRNA expression by a combined pulsed SILAC and microarray analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the miR-34a microRNA is a transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and subject to epigenetic inactivation in colorectal cancer and numerous other tumor types. Here, we combined pulsed SILAC (pSILAC) and microarray analyses to identify miR-34a-induced changes in protein and mRNA expression. pSILAC allowed to quantify the de novo protein synthesis of 1206 proteins after activation of a conditional miR-34a allele in a colorectal cancer cell line. ∼19% of the detected proteins were differentially regulated, with 113 proteins being down- and 115 up-regulated. The proteins with a miR-34a seed-matching-sequence in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding mRNA showed a clear bias toward translational repression. Proteins involved in DNA replication, e.g. the MCM proteins, and cell proliferation, were over-represented among indirectly down-regulated proteins lacking a miR-34a seed-match. The decrease in de novo protein synthesis of direct miR-34a targets correlated with reduced levels of the corresponding mRNA in most cases, indicating an interdependence of both types of regulation. In addition, 43 mRNAs encoding proteins not detected by pSILAC were down-regulated after miR-34a expression and contained miR-34a seed-matches. The direct regulation of selected miR-34a target-mRNAs was confirmed using reporter assays. Via down-regulation of the proteins encoded by these mRNAs miR-34a presumably inhibits glycolysis (LDHA), WNT-signaling (LEF1), invasion/migration (AXL) and lipid metabolism (ACSL1, ACSL4). Furthermore, miR-34a may activate p53 by inhibiting its acetylation (MTA2, HDAC1) and degradation (YY1). In summary, miR-34a presumably participates in multiple tumor suppressive pathways by directly and indirectly suppressing the expression of numerous, critical proteins.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 05/2011; 10(8):M111.010462. · 7.40 Impact Factor