Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

UPR 75, Département BIOS, CIRAD, Av. Agropolis, TA A-75/02, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
Plant Cell Reports (Impact Factor: 2.94). 05/2011; 30(5):883-900. DOI: 10.1007/s00299-010-1000-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

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    ABSTRACT: Seedlessness, an important economic trait for fresh fruit, is among the prior goal for all citrus breeding programs. Symmetric somatic hybridization provides a new strategy for citrus seedless breeding by creating cybrids transferring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) controlled cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from the callus parent Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu Marc.) to seedy cultivars. In this study, protoplast fusion was adopted to transfer CMS from C. unshiu Marc. cv. Guoqing No. 1 (G1) to three seedy sweet oranges (C. sinensis L. Osb.), i.e. ‘Early gold’, ‘Taoye’ and ‘Hongjiang’. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 12 of 13 regenerated plants from G1 + ‘Early gold’, 9 of 12 from G1 + ‘Taoye’ and both two plants from G1 + ‘Hongjiang’ were diploids, while the remaining regenerated plants were tetraploids. Molecular analysis using 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers previously proven to map to the citrus genome showed that the nuclear DNA from all recovered diploid and tetraploid plants derived from their corresponding leaf parent, while cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis showed that the mtDNA of all regenerated plants derived from the callus parent, indicating that the regenerated 2X and 4X plants from all these three combinations are authentic cybrids. Furthermore, the Chloroplast SSR analysis revealed that somatic cybrid plants from the three combinations possessed either of their parental chloroplast type in most cases. These results demonstrated that mtDNA of G1 Satsuma mandarin was successfully introduced into the three seedy sweet orange cultivars for potential seedlessness via symmetric fusion.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 01/2014; 116(1). DOI:10.1007/s11240-013-0384-1 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Edited by Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohd Rafiq Wani, Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz, Lam-Son Phan Tran, 01/2014; Springer., ISBN: ISBN 978-1-4614-8830-9
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of salinity and its combination with silicon (Si) were studied in ‘Nova’ mandarin plants grafted on Citrus aurantium L. or Swingle Citrumelo to determine: (1) which combination is more tolerant to salt stress and (2) the impact of Si in limiting the harmful effects of salinity. Six groups of plants were grown in a greenhouse for 120 days and irrigated with: (1) 50 % Hoagland’s solution (Control), (2) 50 % Hoagland’s solution plus 80 mM NaCl (NaCl), and (3) 50 % Hoagland’s solution plus 80 mM NaCl plus 0.5 mM Si (NaCl + Si). Grafted plants exhibited accumulation of Na and Cl in their tissues following exposure to salinity. The ability of S. Citrumelo to retain the toxic ions in the roots in corroboration with the observation that the dry weights (DWs) of S. Citrumelo tissues were not influenced by NaCl treatment indicates that this rootstock is more tolerant to salinity. Silicon supplementation into the saline medium promoted the accumulation of toxic ions, whereas, when compared to NaCl treatment, it increased the DW of S. Citrumelo roots. Mineral concentrations were significantly affected by rootstock, treatment, and their interaction with S. Citrumelo, which presented better nutrient status than Sour Orange; and Si which differed depending on citrus tissue. It appears that S. Citrumelo rootstock is the most tolerant for ‘Nova’ mandarin plants under salinity, whereas salt tolerance in grafted citrus plants is not improved by Si application, indicating that the beneficial role of Si depends on the cultivar or rootstock–scion combinations.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 06/2014; 36(6):1363-1372. DOI:10.1007/s11738-014-1515-y · 1.52 Impact Factor


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Dec 10, 2014