Article

Somatic hybridization for citrus rootstock breeding: an effective tool to solve some important issues of the Mediterranean citrus industry.

UPR 75, Département BIOS, CIRAD, Av. Agropolis, TA A-75/02, 34398, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
Plant Cell Reports (Impact Factor: 2.94). 05/2011; 30(5):883-900. DOI: 10.1007/s00299-010-1000-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The prevalence of sour orange rootstock in the southern and eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin is presently threatened by the spread of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and its main vector Toxoptera citricida, combined with abiotic constraints such as drought, salinity and alkalinity. The search for alternative CTV-resistant rootstocks that also withstand the other constraints is now considered an urgent priority for a sustainable citrus industry in the area. Complementary progenitors can be found in citrus germplasm to combine the desired traits, particularly between Poncirus and Citrus genera. The production of somatic hybrids allows cumulating all dominant traits irrespective of their heterozygosity level, and would appear to be an effective way to solve the rootstock challenge facing the Mediterranean citrus industry. This paper presents the results obtained during a regional collaborative effort between five countries, to develop new rootstocks by somatic hybridization. New embryogenic callus lines to be used for somatic hybridization have been created. Protoplast fusions have been performed at CIRAD and IVIA laboratories, focusing on intergeneric combinations. Analysis of ploidy level by flow cytometry and molecular markers confirmed the acquisition of new interesting tetraploid somatic hybrids for six combinations. Diploid cybrids with intergeneric (Citrus × Poncirus) nucleus and C. reticulata or C. aurantifolia mitochondria were also identified for four combinations. The agronomical performance of a pre-existing somatic hybrid between Poncirus trifoliata and Citrus reticulata was validated in calcareous soils in Morocco. Somatic hybridization is now integrated into the breeding programs of the five Mediterranean countries.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
201 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protoplast fusion offers an opportunity for circumventing barriers to sexual reproduction and allows for gene transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes to enrich the gene pool of cultivated species. Moreover, protoplast fusion effectively generates novel germplasm for elite breeding of conventional crosses and promotes crop improvement in existing cultivars. Over the past few decades, protoplast fusion in China has considerably progressed not only for food crops but also for economic plants. In this review, we present and discuss the development of somatic hybrids in wheat, rapeseed, citrus, and cotton, some of which are already in use or have potential for future commercial use in China. For example, an elite salt- and drought-resistant line, Shangrong No. 3, has already been registered as a commercial wheat cultivar. Some other hybrids have been found to have disease resistance as well as modified fatty acids, high oil and protein contents, novel cytoplasmic male sterility, and numerous other desirable agronomic characteristics that are useful for further breeding.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 02/2012; 112(2). · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Polyploidy is a major component of eukaryote evolution. Estimation of allele copy numbers for molecular markers has long been considered a challenge for polyploid species, while this process is essential for most genetic research. With the increasing availability and whole-genome coverage of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, it is essential to implement a versatile SNP genotyping method to assign allelic configuration efficiently in polyploids.ScopeThis work evaluates the usefulness of the KASPar method, based on competitive allele-specific PCR, for the assignment of SNP allelic configuration. Citrus was chosen as a model because of its economic importance, the ongoing worldwide polyploidy manipulation projects for cultivar and rootstock breeding, and the increasing availability of SNP markers.Conclusions Fifteen SNP markers were successfully designed that produced clear allele signals that were in agreement with previous genotyping results at the diploid level. The analysis of DNA mixes between two haploid lines (Clementine and pummelo) at 13 different ratios revealed a very high correlation (average = 0·9796; s.d. = 0·0094) between the allele ratio and two parameters [θ angle = tan(-1) (y/x) and y' = y/(x + y)] derived from the two normalized allele signals (x and y) provided by KASPar. Separated cluster analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) from mixed DNA simulating triploid and tetraploid hybrids provided 99·71 % correct allelic configuration. Moreover, triploid populations arising from 2n gametes and interploid crosses were easily genotyped and provided useful genetic information. This work demonstrates that the KASPar SNP genotyping technique is an efficient way to assign heterozygous allelic configurations within polyploid populations. This method is accurate, simple and cost-effective. Moreover, it may be useful for quantitative studies, such as relative allele-specific expression analysis and bulk segregant analysis.
    Annals of Botany 02/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review we focus on recent progress in protoplast regeneration, symmetric and asymmetric hybridization and novel technology developments. Regeneration of new species and improved culture techniques opened new horizons for practical breeding in a number of crops. The importance of protoplast sources and embedding systems is discussed. The study of reactive oxygen species effects and DNA (de)condensation, along with thorough phytohormone monitoring, are in our opinion the most promising research topics in the further strive for rationalization of protoplast regeneration. Following, fusion and fragmentation progress is summarized. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies have led to better insights in fundamental processes such as cell wall formation, cell development and chromosome rearrangements in fusion products, whether or not obtained after irradiation. Advanced molecular screening methods of both genome and cytoplasmome facilitate efficient screening of both symmetric and asymmetric fusion products. We expect that emerging technologies as GISH, high resolution melting and next generation sequencing will pay major contributions to our insights of genome creation and stabilization, mainly after asymmetric hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate agricultural valorization of somatic hybridization through enumerating recent introgression of diverse traits in a number of commercial crops.
    Planta 08/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
9 Downloads
Available from
Dec 10, 2014

Similar Publications