Neurologic cytomegalovirus complications in patients with AIDS: retrospective review of 13 cases and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Neurological disorders caused by Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are rarely reported in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) period. The objective of this study was to describe the main clinical and laboratory features of patients with CMV-related neurological complications in HIV-infected patients admitted to a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. CMV disease requires the identification of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Thirteen cases were identified between January, 2004 and December, 2008. The median age of patients was 38 years and nine (69%) were men. At admission all patients were aware of their HIV status and only four (31%) patients were on HAART. Patients who were not on antiretroviral therapy before admission received HAART while inpatients. CMV disease was the first AIDS-defining illness in eight (62%) patients. The neurologic syndromes identified were diffuse encephalitis (n = 7; 62%), polyradiculopathy (n = 7; 54%), focal encephalitis (rhombencephalitis) (n = 1; 8%), and ventriculo-encephalitis (n = 1; 8%). Seven (54%) patients presented extra-neural CMV disease and four (31%) had retinitis. The median of CD4+ T-cell count was 13 cells/µL (range: 1-124 cells/µL). Overall in-hospital mortality was 38%. Eight patients used ganciclovir or foscarnet (in-hospital mortality: 50%) and five patients used ganciclovir and foscarnet (in-hospital mortality: 20%). None of the patients fulfilled the diagnosis criteria of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Four patients were lost to follow-up, and three patients presented immune recovery and discontinued secondary prophylaxis. Although infrequent, distinct neurological syndromes caused by CMV continue to cause high mortality among AIDS patients. Survival depends upon the use of effective antiviral therapy against CMV and the early introduction of HAART.
SourceAvailable from: Rebekah M AhmedPractical Neurology 03/2013; DOI:10.1136/practneurol-2012-000443
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ABSTRACT: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in CMV IgM/IgG-negative renal transplant recipients from CMV-positive donors (D+/R-) can occur after discontinuation of prophylaxis treatment as a flu-like syndrome or tissue invasive disease, involvement of the central nervous system is rare. Here, we report a case of CMV polyradiculopathy 6 months after renal transplantation that presented as a Guillain-Barre like syndrome and was successfully treated with foscarnet. This case highlights an uncommon aspect of CMV invasive disease which we should keep in mind in CMV (D+/R-) renal transplant recipients.Clinical nephrology 07/2013; 80(1):75-78. DOI:10.5414/CN107479 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking-glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient's daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV.HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 09/2013; 5:243-251. DOI:10.2147/HIV.S36674