Article

An enzyme-sensitive probe for photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence detection of protease activity

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130, USA.
Nanoscale (Impact Factor: 6.74). 01/2011; 3(3):950-3. DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00874e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A gold nanocage and dye conjugate has been demonstrated for use with photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence detection of protease activity. The detection sensitivity could be maximized by using gold nanocages with a localized surface plasmon resonance peak away from the emission peak of the dye. These hybrids can be potentially used as multimodal contrast agents for molecular imaging.

Full-text

Available from: Yu Shrike Zhang, May 29, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
142 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In medicine, nanotechnology has sparked a rapidly growing interest as it promises to solve a number of issues associated with conventional therapeutic agents, including their poor water solubility (at least, for most anticancer drugs), lack of targeting capability, nonspecific distribution, systemic toxicity, and low therapeutic index. Over the past several decades, remarkable progress has been made in the development and application of engineered nanoparticles to treat cancer more effectively. For example, therapeutic agents have been integrated with nanoparticles engineered with optimal sizes, shapes, and surface properties to increase their solubility, prolong their circulation half-life, improve their biodistribution, and reduce their immunogenicity. Nanoparticles and their payloads have also been favorably delivered into tumors by taking advantage of the pathophysiological conditions, such as the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the spatial variations in the pH value. Additionally, targeting ligands (e.g., small organic molecules, peptides, antibodies, and nucleic acids) have been added to the surface of nanoparticles to specifically target cancerous cells through selective binding to the receptors overexpressed on their surface. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that multiple types of therapeutic drugs and/or diagnostic agents (e.g., contrast agents) could be delivered through the same carrier to enable combination therapy with a potential to overcome multidrug resistance, and real-time readout on the treatment efficacy. It is anticipated that precisely engineered nanoparticles will emerge as the next-generation platform for cancer therapy and many other biomedical applications.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 10/2014; 46(5). DOI:10.1002/anie.201403036 · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), which is a double resonance technique, creates images of free radical distribution in animals by enhancing the water proton signal intensity by the overhauser effect. In this study, we constructed a contrast agent by combining PROXYL groups that have nitroxyl radicals with PEG-modified dendritic poly(l-lysine) that accumulates in the tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Addition of the PROXYL groups at the PEG chains' termini on KG6 was advantageous in OMRI, because the ESR signal of the nitroxyl radical was maintained without decay caused by mobility restriction, even if the PROXYL groups were attached at 25 mol% on one molecule. After intramuscular injection of the molecule modified at 25 mol%, that is, PR25-PEG-KG6, a significant OMRI signal was observed at the injected site. However, no signal was detected in the tumor after intravenous injection of PR25-PEG-KG6 to a tumor-bearing mouse, although PR25-PEG-KG6 itself accumulated in the tumor. The reason was that the nitroxyl radicals were immediately reduced in the blood after the injection, suggesting that use of stable nitroxyl radicals will enable detection of tumors by OMRI after intravenous injection.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 08/2014; DOI:10.1080/09205063.2014.943538 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enzymes underpin physiological function and exhibit dysregulation in many disease-associated microenvironments and aberrant cell processes. Exploiting altered enzyme activity and expression for diagnostics, drug targeting, and drug release is tremendously promising. When combined with booming research in nanobiotechnology, enzyme-responsive nanomaterials used for controlled drug release have achieved significant development and have been studied as an important class of drug delivery strategies in nanomedicine. In this review, we describe enzymes such as proteases, phospholipases and oxidoreductases that serve as delivery triggers. Subsequently, we explore recently developed enzyme-responsive nanomaterials with versatile applications for extracellular and intracellular drug delivery. We conclude by discussing future opportunities and challenges in this area.
    Nanoscale 09/2014; DOI:10.1039/c4nr04249b · 6.74 Impact Factor