G-CSF-mediated thrombopoietin release triggers neutrophil motility and mobilization from bone marrow via induction of Cxcr2 ligands

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 04/2011; 117(16):4349-57. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-09-308387
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Emergency mobilization of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils) from the bone marrow (BM) is a key event of early cellular immunity. The hematopoietic cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulates this process, but it is unknown how individual neutrophils respond in situ. We show by intravital 2-photon microscopy that a systemic dose of human clinical-grade G-CSF rapidly induces the motility and entry of neutrophils into blood vessels within the tibial BM of mice. Simultaneously, the neutrophil-attracting chemokine KC (Cxcl1) spikes in the blood. In mice lacking the KC receptor Cxcr2, G-CSF fails to mobilize neutrophils and antibody blockade of Cxcr2 inhibits the mobilization and induction of neutrophil motility in the BM. KC is expressed by megakaryocytes and endothelial cells in situ and is released in vitro by megakaryocytes isolated directly from BM. This production of KC is strongly increased by thrombopoietin (TPO). Systemic G-CSF rapidly induces the increased production of TPO in BM. Accordingly, a single injection of TPO mobilizes neutrophils with kinetics similar to G-CSF, and mice lacking the TPO receptor show impaired neutrophil mobilization after short-term G-CSF administration. Thus, a network of signaling molecules, chemokines, and cells controls neutrophil release from the BM, and their mobilization involves rapidly induced Cxcr2-mediated motility controlled by TPO as a pacemaker.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuronal injury from ischemic stroke is aggravated by invading peripheral immune cells. Early infiltrates of neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells influence the outcome of stroke. So far, however, neither the timing nor the cellular dynamics of neutrophil entry, its consequences for the invaded brain area, or the relative importance of T-cells has been extensively studied in an intravital setting. Here, we have used intravital two-photon microscopy to document neutrophils and brain-resident microglia in mice after induction of experimental stroke. We demonstrated that neutrophils immediately rolled, firmly adhered, and transmigrated at sites of endothelial activation in stroke-affected brain areas. The ensuing neutrophil invasion was associated with local blood-brain barrier breakdown and infarct formation. Brain-resident microglia recognized both endothelial damage and neutrophil invasion. In a cooperative manner, they formed cytoplasmic processes to physically shield activated endothelia and trap infiltrating neutrophils. Interestingly, the systemic blockade of very-late-antigen-4 immediately and very effectively inhibited the endothelial interaction and brain entry of neutrophils. This treatment thereby strongly reduced the ischemic tissue injury and effectively protected the mice from stroke-associated behavioral impairment. Behavioral preservation was also equally well achieved with the antibody-mediated depletion of myeloid cells or specifically neutrophils. In contrast, T-cell depletion more effectively reduced the infarct volume without improving the behavioral performance. Thus, neutrophil invasion of the ischemic brain is rapid, massive, and a key mediator of functional impairment, while peripheral T-cells promote brain damage. Acutely depleting T-cells and inhibiting brain infiltration of neutrophils might, therefore, be a powerful early stroke treatment.
    Acta Neuropathologica 11/2014; 129(2). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1355-2 · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lack of sleep greatly affects our immune system. The present study investigates the acute effects of total sleep deprivation on blood neutrophils, the most abundant immune cell in our circulation and the first cell type recruited to sites of infection. Thus, the population diversity and function of circulating neutrophils were compared in healthy young men following one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or after 8 h regular sleep. We found that neutrophil counts were elevated after nocturnal wakefulness (2.0±0.2×109/l vs. 2.6±0.2×109/l, sleep vs. TSD, respectively) and the population contained more immature CD16dim/CD62Lbright cells (0.11±0.040×109/l [5.5±1.1%] vs. 0.26±0.020×109/l [9.9±1.4%]). As the rise in numbers of circulating mature CD16bright/CD62Lbright neutrophils was less pronounced, the fraction of this subpopulation showed a significant decrease (1.8±0.15×109/l [88±1.8%] vs. 2.1±0.12×109/l [82±2.8%]). The surface expression of receptors regulating mobilization of neutrophils from bone marrow was decreased (CXCR4 and CD49d on immature neutrophils; CXCR2 on mature neutrophils). The receptor CXCR2 is also involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in line with this, total neutrophils produced less ROS. In addition, following sleep loss, circulating neutrophils exhibited enhanced surface levels of CD11b, which indicates enhanced granular fusion and concomitant protein translocation to the membrane. Our findings demonstrate that sleep loss exerts significant effects on population diversity and function of circulating neutrophils in healthy men. To which extent these changes could explain as to why people with poor sleep patterns are more susceptible to infections warrants further investigation.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 06/2014; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2014.05.010 · 6.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monocytes are innate immune cells that play critical roles in inflammation and immune defense. A better comprehension of how monocytes are mobilized and recruited is fundamental to understand their biologic role in disease and steady state. The BM represents a major "checkpoint" for monocyte homeostasis, as it is the primary site for their production and release. Our study determined that the Cx3cr1(gfp/+) mouse strain is currently the most ideal model for the visualization of monocyte behavior in the BM by multiphoton intravital microscopy. However, we observed that DCs are also labeled with high levels of GFP and thus, interfere with the accuracy of monocyte tracking in vivo. Hence, we generated a Cx3cr1(gfp/+)Flt3L(-/-) reporter mouse and showed that whereas monocyte numbers were not affected, DC numbers were reduced significantly, as DCs but not monocytes depend on Flt3 signaling for their development. We thus verified that mobilization of monocytes from the BM in Cx3cr1(gfp/+)Flt3L(-/-) mice is intact in response to LPS. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the Cx3cr1(gfp/+)Flt3L(-/-) reporter mouse model represents a powerful tool to visualize monocyte activities in BM and illustrates the potential of a Cx3cr1(gfp/+)-based, multifunctionality fluorescence reporter approach to dissect monocyte function in vivo. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014