Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks from three areas of Khorram Abad, Iran

Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad, Iran.
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ 06/2010; 12(2):63-5.
Source: PubMed


Toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonose caused by the infection of larval nematode Toxocara species. A total of 285 soil samples from January to March 2009 in 18 public parks were collected to test for soil contamination with Toxocara eggs. Soil samples were investigated for the present of Toxocara eggs using sucrose flotation method. Distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in samples collected from public parks was 63.3%. The highest number of eggs recovered from 200 g of soil was 128. A total 304 eggs were recovered and 42.1% fully developed to embryonated egg stages. The contamination rate in second region in the studied areas was higher than the other regions. A similar tendency was observed in parks size, so that parks higher than 10,000 m2 were more highly contaminated. The present investigation clearly shows that public parks have been contaminated with Toxocara eggs in Khorram Abad, suggesting that care should be taken when using public parks.

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Available from: Mohammad Zibaei,
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    • "Examination of Urmia public parks soil indicated that 7.8% of the parks were contaminated with Toxocara eggs [12], In Khoramabad 22.2% [13], In Tehran 38.7% [14], and in Shiraz 6.3% [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Toxocariasis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases caused by Toxocara larva stage in humans. One of the major transmission routes of infection, especially in children is pica. The aim of this topic was study the contamination of Abadan public parks with Toxocara eggs. Materials and methods Two hundred and ninety one samples of soil were collected from 31 parks. The samples were examined for Toxocara spp. eggs by modified floatation method using saturated sucrose. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 19 and Chi-square test. Results Eighty five (29.2%) out of 291 samples were infected with Toxocara spp. eggs, means19 (61.2%) of the 31 parks were contaminated. There was no significant difference between the urban and suburb parks contamination (p = 0.208) but there was significant relation between contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs and traces of cats and dogs presence in the parks (p = 0.001). Conclusion As the contamination of Abadan public parks soil with Toxocara spp. eggs is relatively high, the people and specially children might get the contamination during stay in the parks and measures should be taken to control the stray cats and dogs.
    Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 05/2014; 12(1):86. DOI:10.1186/2052-336X-12-86 · 0.50 Impact Factor
    • "np, number positive; p, prevalence (positive %); CI, confidence interval. the west (Zibaei et al., 2010). These results may be due to several factors such as climate, poor sanitation, cultural and social conditions , soil texture, and the presence of dogs and cats, especially the number of stray cats and dogs. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the microscopy and polymerase chain reaction methods were used for detection and identification of soil contamination by Toxocara eggs in squares, streets, public parks, and rubbish dumps in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran. A total of 210 soil samples were collected from different parts of the city and examined by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, following sodium nitrate flotation. Nucleotide sequencing was performed to confirm the results of the PCR method. Toxocara eggs were found in 64 and 71 soil samples using the microscopy and PCR methods, respectively. The highest contamination rate was observed in the central part of Ahvaz (39.5% and 46.5% by the microscopy and PCR methods, respectively). Based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR identification, 28% of the samples were diagnosed as Toxocara cati and 5.7% as T. canis; no mixed contamination was observed. DNA sequencing of the ITS2 gene confirmed our findings. Compared to the conventional microscopic detection following by flotation, used as the gold standard, the PCR method appears to be rapid and sensitive as well as allows analysis of Toxocara spp. isolated from soil independent of the stage of egg development. Therefore, the PCR method appears to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis and differentiation of Toxocara spp. from soil samples in epidemiological studies, and will help the local health systems in effective prevention and control of disease.
    Acta tropica 03/2014; 135(1). DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.016 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    • "infection in stray cats and dogs in various parts of Iran [9] [10] [11]. In Khorramabad, Iran, 22.2% of the public parks studied showed Toxocara eggs [12]. Toxocara is one of the common helminthic parasites reported that affect the human central nervous system (CNS). "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8%) and 3 (3.5%) persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group (n = 85), 3 (3.5%) persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.
    04/2013; 2013(6):156815. DOI:10.1155/2013/156815
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