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    ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistant coagulaso-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become an increasing problem in nosocomial infections connected with the presence of medical devices. The paper aimed to analyze the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CNS isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Continuous prospective target surveillance of infections was conducted in 2009 at two Polish NICUs that participated in the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). The study covered 386 neonates with VLBW (<=1500 g), among which 262 cases of invasive infection were detected with predominance of CNS (123; 47%). Altogether, 100 CNS strains were analyzed. The resistance phenotypes were determined according to EUCAST. Resistance genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, mrsA, aac(6[prime])/aph(2[prime][prime]), ant(4[prime])-Ia and aph(3[prime])-IIIa were detected using multiplex PCR. The most common species was S. epidermidis (63%), then S. haemolyticus (28%) and other CNS (9%). Among S. epidermidis, 98% of isolates were resistant to methicillin, 90% to erythromycin, 39% to clindamycin, 95% to gentamicin, 60% to amikacin, 36% to ofloxacin, 2% to tigecycline, 3% to linezolid and 13% to teicoplanin. Among S. haemolyticus isolates, 100% were resistant to methicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin, 18% to clindamycin, 50% to amikacin, 86% to ofloxacin, 14% to tigecycline and 4% to teicoplanin. No resistance to linezolid was detected for S. haemolyticus isolates. Moreover, all isolates of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were susceptible to vancomycin. The mecA gene was detected in 98% of S. epidermidis isolates and all of S. haemolyticus ones. Among macrolide resistance isolates, the ermC was most common in S. epidermidis (60%) while msrA was prevalent in S. haemolyticus (93%). The ermC gene was indicated in all isolates with cMLSB, whereas mrsA was found in isolates with MSB phenotype. Of the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6[prime])/aph(2[prime][prime]) were present alone in 83% of S. epidermidis, whereas aac(6[prime])/aph(2[prime][prime]) with aph(3[prime])-IIIa were predominant in 84% of S. haemolyticus. Knowing the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of CNS isolated from invasive infection in VLBW neonates is a key step in developing targeted prevention strategies and reducing antibiotic consumption.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 12/2013; 12(1):41. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of widespread emergence of aminoglycoside resistance, these drugs are still used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of aminoglycoside resistance and genes encoding aminoglycoside – modifying enzymes (AMEs) as well as Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) type in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in pediatric patients. Totally, 93 CoNS isolates were examined for susceptibility to aminoglycosides using disk diffusion and/or E-test methods. AMEs genes and SCCmec types were detected using multiplex PCR. Strain typing was performed using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) – PCR assay. The non-susceptibility rates to kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, amikacin and netilmicin were 73%, 59%, 49.5%, 16% and 7.5%, respectively. aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, ant(4′)-Ia and aph(3′)-IIIa were encountered in 56 (60.2%), 38 (40.8%) and 18 (19.3%) isolates, respectively. In aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia- positive isolates, the non- susceptibility rates to kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin and netilmicin were 83%, 74%, 73%, 49% and 43%, respectively. SCCmec types included type IV (n = 31), I (n = 17), II (n = 5), III (n = 4), and V (n = 2). Three isolates had two types; I + III (n = 2) and III + IV (n = 1) whereas 11 isolates were non-typeable. AMEs genes carriers were distributed frequently into type IV. We found diverse fingerprint patterns among our isolates. In conclusion, there was a strong correlation between alarming rate of aminoglycoside resistance and methicillin resistance. Discordances between phenotypic and genotypic detection of aminoglycoside resistance were discernible. AMEs genes might be related to SCCmec types.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 01/2014;

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