Persistent coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteremia in very-low-birth-weight infants
ABSTRACT This study sought to expand current knowledge on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of persistent coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) bacteremia in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Background and disease-related data were collected prospectively on 143 VLBW infants diagnosed with CoNS bacteremia at a pediatric tertiary medical center in 1995-2003. Findings were compared between those with persistent (positive blood cultures for >72 h under appropriate treatment ) and nonpersistent disease. Fifty-eight infants (40.6%) were found to have persistent bacteremia. There were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics, mode of delivery, newborn characteristics, dwell time of central venous and umbilical catheters, complications of prematurity, or mean hospital stay. The persistent bacteremia group had significantly higher rates of hypothermia at presentation (37.9% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.04), creatinine >1.2 mg% on treatment day 7 (13.7% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.02; transient phenomenon), and endocarditis (p < 0.03); one infant had an aortic thrombus. Predominantly breast-fed infants had a higher rate of negative cultures within 72 h of appropriate treatment than predominantly formula-fed infants (60% vs. 19%, p < 0.02). In conclusion, persistence of CoNS bacteremia is common in VLBW infants. Endocarditis should be excluded in all infants with persistent disease. Breast-feeding is associated with a shorter disease duration.
SourceAvailable from: Yhu-Chering Huang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An episode of breakthrough bacteremia, which was defined as positive blood cultures despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, imposes a treatment challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All episodes of breakthrough bacteremia from a tertiary level NICU in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011 were analyzed and compared with nonbreakthrough bacteremia. Breakthrough bacteremia was identified in 7.6% (72/942) of neonatal bacteremia, and 43 (59.7%) occurred as recurrent episodes. Gram-negative organisms (41.7%) and fungi (15.3%) accounted for more than half of all microorganisms in breakthrough bacteremia. Compared with nonbreakthrough bacteremia, breakthrough bacteremia was significantly associated with more severe disease, was more likely to require aggressive therapies, and had a higher rate of infectious complications. Previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 7.54; P < .001) and particular microbial etiologies (Pseudomonas aeruginosa: OR, 4.40; P = .025; fungi: OR, 2.70; P = .013) were independent risk factors for developing breakthrough bacteremia. The crude sepsis-attributable mortality rate was greater in breakthrough bacteremia episodes (16.7% vs 6.4%; P = .004), and this condition was independently associated with an increased risk of death (OR, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.40; P = .040). Breakthrough bacteremia is not uncommon (7.6% of all bacteremia) in NICUs and represents a more severe form of neonatal bacteremia that is independently associated with an increased risk of death. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal of Infection Control 01/2015; 43(1):20-5. DOI:10.1016/j.ajic.2014.09.022 · 2.33 Impact Factor
Article: Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10/2014; 27(4):870-926. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00109-13 · 16.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in premature neonates. The optimal approach in persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia, despite adequate treatment with glycopeptides, is not well established. A retrospective study was conducted on preterm neonates with persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia treated with the combination of vancomycin-rifampicin. Ten cases were included, with a median gestational age of 26 weeks (range 24 weeks + 3 days-31 weeks + 4 days, interquartile range 25 weeks + 3 days-29 weeks + 3 days) and a median birth weight of 715 g (range 555-2,030). The median age at the onset of infection was 9 days (range 5-37). The most frequent clinical presentation was apnea or increased ventilatory support. Bacteremia persisted for a median of 9 (range 6-19) days until rifampicin initiation. Bacteremia was resolved in all cases on vancomycin-rifampicin with no serious side effects. Conclusion: Our study provides data supporting the safety and efficacy of vancomycin-rifampicin combination for the treatment of persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteremia in preterm neonates.European Journal of Pediatrics 01/2013; 172(5). DOI:10.1007/s00431-012-1927-x · 1.98 Impact Factor