Practice Guidelines Belief, Criticism, and Probability
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 11.46). 01/2011; 171(1):15-7. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.453
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older people aged 65 years and over who were admitted to hospital, and to examine the medications and medication classes that comprised these PIMs with use of the Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions. Using a retrospective clinical audit design, the medical records of 100 older patients were randomly selected and examined for the prevalence and characteristics of PIMs. The audit was undertaken of patients admitted over a 12-month period to an Australian public teaching hospital. In total, 92 individual occurrences of PIMs were detected, and 54 patients had at least one PIM. The most common type of PIM experienced related to prescribed medications that adversely affected individuals who were prone to falls. Many older patients experienced a PIM during their hospital admission, where the risk of an adverse event could outweigh the clinical benefit.Australasian Journal on Ageing 06/2013; DOI:10.1111/ajag.12054 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionDespite increasing use of testosterone therapy (TTh) for men with testosterone deficiency (TD), there remains uncertainty determining who is a candidate for treatment.AimThe aim if this study was to report the opinions of international experts on TTh, as initially presented at the meeting of the World Meeting on Sexual Medicine in Chicago, United States in August 2012.Methods Expert responses to questions regarding the diagnosis of TD based on their own clinical and research experience.ResultsAll experts emphasized the primacy of symptoms for the diagnosis of TD. Total testosterone (T) thresholds used to identify TD ranged from 350 ng/dL to 400 ng/dL (12–14 nmol/L); however, experts emphasized the diagnostic limitations of this test. Free T was obtained by all, with some valuing this test more than total T for clinical decision making. Only one expert routinely used a screening questionnaire. None used age-adjusted values. Bioavailable T and the free androgen index were not used. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were routinely obtained at evaluation. Additional supportive evidence for TD diagnosis included small testicular volume, high androgen receptor CAG repeats, elevated LH, and presence of diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Two T tests were generally obtained but not always required. Some experts did not require morning testing in men 50 years and older. All monitored prostate-specific antigen and hematocrit after initiation of TTh. All but one expert would consider a trial of TTh to a symptomatic man with total T within the normal range. Recent studies suggesting increased cardiovascular risk with T therapy were not found to be credible.Conclusions Determining who is a candidate for TTh requires clinical assessment based on symptoms and signs, with confirmatory laboratory evaluation. These expert opinions differed from some published guidelines by the emphasis on symptoms as paramount, recognition of the limitations of total T as a diagnostic test, and the potential utility of a therapeutic trial in symptomatic cases with normal total T concentrations. Morgentaler A, Khera M, Maggi M, and Zitzmann M. Commentary: Who is a candidate for testosterone therapy? A synthesis of international expert opinions. J Sex Med **;**:**–**.Journal of Sexual Medicine 06/2014; 11(7). DOI:10.1111/jsm.12546 · 3.15 Impact Factor
Hjelt institute, University of Helsinki, 06/2012, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Kumpusalo E; Ketola E
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