Article

Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Journal of food protection (Impact Factor: 1.8). 12/2010; 73(12):2232-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Contaminated hands or inanimate surfaces can act as a source of infection during outbreaks of human norovirus infection. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of seven hand sanitizers containing various active ingredients, such as ethanol, triclosan, and chlorhexidine, and compared their effectiveness against feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and a GII.4 norovirus fecal extract. We also tested the efficacy of 50, 70, and 90% of ethanol and isopropanol. Reduction of viral infectivity was measured by plaque assay, and the number of genomic copies was determined with a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. Based on the results of a quantitative suspension test, only one ethanol-based product (72% ethanol, pH 2.9) and one triclosan-based product (0.1% triclosan, pH 3.0) reduced the infectivity of both MNV and FCV (by >2.6 and ≥3.4 log units, respectively). Four of the seven products were effective against either MNV or FCV, whereas chlorhexidine was ineffective against both viruses. For these hand sanitizers, no correlation was found between reduced infectivity and decline of viral RNA. Ethanol and isopropanol concentrations ≥70% reduced the infectivity of MNV by ≥2.6 log units, whereas 50 and 70% ethanol reduced the infectivity of FCV by ≥2.2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers.

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    • "MNV (strain CW3), provided by Dr. Skip Virgin, Washington University School of Medicine (St Louis, Mo, USA), was propagated and assayed in RAW 264.7 cells (ATCC No. TIB-71, Manassas, VA). FCV strain F9 ATCC No.VR-782 was propagated and assayed in Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells (CRfK ATCC No. CCL-94), as previously described [30]. The infectivity titers of MNV and FCV stocks were approximately10 8.0 and 10 8.9 PFU mL À1 , respectively. "
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    • "Inactivation studies on HuNoV are, therefore, usually carried out using surrogate viruses, e.g. Feline and Canine caliciviruses (Duizer et al. 2004a, b) and more recently Murine norovirus (MuNoV) (Lee et al. 2008; D'Souza and Su 2010; Park et al. 2010), which resemble HuNoV in morphology (Wobus et al. 2004). Although a lot of important information is gained with the use of surrogates , there is concern that they are less resistant towards environmental stresses compared to the viruses of interest (Richards 2012). "
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    • "and FCV to several disinfectants in an effort to validate the virolysis approach for discriminating virus infectivity status; no infectivity assays were used in that study. Park et al. (2010) compared the efficacy of seven hand sanitizers using FCV, MNV, and HuNoV by measuring the reduction of infectivity and/or decline in number of genomic copies, a study design similar to ours. They tested the active ingredients ethanol and isopropanol at concentrations of 50, 70, and 90% and found, as we did, that MNV-1 was more sensitive to ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. "
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