Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against Murine norovirus, Feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Journal of food protection (Impact Factor: 1.85). 12/2010; 73(12):2232-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Contaminated hands or inanimate surfaces can act as a source of infection during outbreaks of human norovirus infection. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of seven hand sanitizers containing various active ingredients, such as ethanol, triclosan, and chlorhexidine, and compared their effectiveness against feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and a GII.4 norovirus fecal extract. We also tested the efficacy of 50, 70, and 90% of ethanol and isopropanol. Reduction of viral infectivity was measured by plaque assay, and the number of genomic copies was determined with a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. Based on the results of a quantitative suspension test, only one ethanol-based product (72% ethanol, pH 2.9) and one triclosan-based product (0.1% triclosan, pH 3.0) reduced the infectivity of both MNV and FCV (by >2.6 and ≥3.4 log units, respectively). Four of the seven products were effective against either MNV or FCV, whereas chlorhexidine was ineffective against both viruses. For these hand sanitizers, no correlation was found between reduced infectivity and decline of viral RNA. Ethanol and isopropanol concentrations ≥70% reduced the infectivity of MNV by ≥2.6 log units, whereas 50 and 70% ethanol reduced the infectivity of FCV by ≥2.2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers.

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Available from: Jan Vinjé, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "MNV (strain CW3), provided by Dr. Skip Virgin, Washington University School of Medicine (St Louis, Mo, USA), was propagated and assayed in RAW 264.7 cells (ATCC No. TIB-71, Manassas, VA). FCV strain F9 ATCC No.VR-782 was propagated and assayed in Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells (CRfK ATCC No. CCL-94), as previously described [30]. The infectivity titers of MNV and FCV stocks were approximately10 8.0 and 10 8.9 PFU mL À1 , respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of light-activated fluorinated TiO2 surface coatings on human norovirus and several surrogates (bacteriophage MS2, feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV)). Inactivation of viruses on surfaces exposed to a common fluorescent lamp was monitored and the effects of UVA intensity, temperature, and fluoride content were assessed. Destruction of RNA and capsid oxidation were evaluated for human norovirus inocula on the F-TiO2 surfaces, while contact with the F-TiO2 surface and exposure to residual UVA radiation of 10μWcm(-2) for 60min resulted in infectivity reductions for the norovirus surrogates of 2-3 log10. Infectivity reductions on pristine TiO2 surfaces in identical conditions were over 2 orders of magnitude lower. Under realistic room lighting conditions, MS2 infectivity declined below the lower detection limit after 12h. Reductions in RNA were generally low, with the exception of GII.4, while capsid protein oxidation likely played a larger role in infectivity loss. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates occurred significantly faster on F-TiO2 compared to pristine TiO2 surfaces. The material demonstrated antiviral action against human norovirus surrogates and was shown to effectively inhibit MS2 when exposed to residual UVA present in fluorescent room lighting conditions in a laboratory setting.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 08/2014; 140C:315-320. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.08.009 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Areas of controversy include the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand sanitizers and closures of affected units to new admissions. Despite widespread use, the evidence on the effectiveness of alcohol-based hand sanitizers is inconclusive [47,48], so they should be used in addition to, not instead of, hand washing during outbreaks. Some studies suggest that ward closure is effective at reducing cases and the duration of outbreaks [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review To provide an overview of the burden of norovirus disease in healthcare settings and the factors responsible for outbreaks in these institutions; to assess progress on interventions aimed at reducing the burden of norovirus disease. Recent findings Norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings are driven by confluence of viral diversity, the built environment, and host factors. Some of these characteristics may be modifiable and the target of successful interventions. Summary Most norovirus outbreaks in hospital and residential care institutions are associated with a particular genotype, known as GII.4. The persistence of norovirus is associated with strain diversity, which is driven by immune evasion and viral adaptation to interaction with a variety of human histo-blood group antigens. The healthcare environment presents serious challenges for control, both because of the physical structure of the built space and the high levels of contact among patient populations who may have compromised hygiene. Increased vulnerability among the populations in healthcare institutions is likely to be multifactorial and may include the following: nutritional status, immunodeficiency or senescence, chronic inflammation, and microbiome alterations. Current control measures are based on general infection control principles, and treatment is mainly supportive and nonspecific. Vaccines and antiviral agents are being developed with promising results, but none are currently available.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 27(5). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000094 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    • "Inactivation studies on HuNoV are, therefore, usually carried out using surrogate viruses, e.g. Feline and Canine caliciviruses (Duizer et al. 2004a, b) and more recently Murine norovirus (MuNoV) (Lee et al. 2008; D'Souza and Su 2010; Park et al. 2010), which resemble HuNoV in morphology (Wobus et al. 2004). Although a lot of important information is gained with the use of surrogates , there is concern that they are less resistant towards environmental stresses compared to the viruses of interest (Richards 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission of gastroenteritis-causing noroviruses may be significant via contaminated surfaces. Measures for control, e.g. disinfection with ultraviolet irradiation (UV), are therefore necessary for interrupting this transmission. Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.4 and Murine norovirus (MuNoV) were used to study the efficacy of UV for virus inactivation on dry glass surfaces. MuNoV inactivation was measured using viability assay and the reduction in viral RNA levels for both viruses using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR). For each UV dose, two parallel sample groups were detected using RT-QPCR: one group was enzymatically pre-PCR treated with Pronase and RNAse enzymes, while the other was not treated enzymatically. In the viability assay, loss of infectivity and a 4-log reduction of MuNoV were observed when the viruses on glass slides were treated with a UV dose of 60 mJ/cm(2) or higher. In the RT-QPCR assay, a steady 2-log decline of MuNoV and HuNoV RNA levels was observed when UV doses were raised from 0 to 150 mJ/cm(2). A distinct difference in RNA levels of pretreated and non-pretreated samples was observed with UV doses of 450-1.8 × 10(3) mJ/cm(2): the RNA levels of untreated samples remained over 1.0 × 10(3) PCR units (pcr-u), while the RNA levels of enzyme-treated samples declined below 100 pcr-u. However, the data show a prominent difference between the persistence of MuNoV observed with the infectivity assay and that of viral RNA detected using RT-QPCR. Methods based on genome detection may overestimate norovirus persistence even when samples are pretreated before genome detection.
    Food and Environmental Virology 10/2013; 6(1). DOI:10.1007/s12560-013-9128-y · 2.36 Impact Factor
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