Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections
ABSTRACT Globally, arthropod-borne virus infections are increasingly common causes of severe febrile disease that can progress to long-term physical or cognitive impairment or result in early death. Because of the large populations at risk, it has been suggested that these outcomes represent a substantial health deficit not captured by current global disease burden assessments.
We reviewed newly available data on disease incidence and outcomes to critically evaluate the disease burden (as measured by disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs) caused by yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). We searched available literature and official reports on these viruses combined with the terms "outbreak(s)," "complication(s)," "disability," "quality of life," "DALY," and "QALY," focusing on reports since 2000. We screened 210 published studies, with 38 selected for inclusion. Data on average incidence, duration, age at onset, mortality, and severity of acute and chronic outcomes were used to create DALY estimates for 2005, using the approach of the current Global Burden of Disease framework.
Given the limitations of available data, nondiscounted, unweighted DALYs attributable to YFV, JEV, CHIKV, and RVFV were estimated to fall between 300,000 and 5,000,000 for 2005. YFV was the most prevalent infection of the four viruses evaluated, although a higher proportion of the world's population lives in countries at risk for CHIKV and JEV. Early mortality and long-term, related chronic conditions provided the largest DALY components for each disease. The better known, short-term viral febrile syndromes caused by these viruses contributed relatively lower proportions of the overall DALY scores.
Limitations in health systems in endemic areas undoubtedly lead to underestimation of arbovirus incidence and related complications. However, improving diagnostics and better understanding of the late secondary results of infection now give a first approximation of the current disease burden from these widespread serious infections. Arbovirus control and prevention remains a high priority, both because of the current disease burden and the significant threat of the re-emergence of these viruses among much larger groups of susceptible populations.
SourceAvailable from: Caroline Chepngeno TigoiInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 21:229-230. DOI:10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.899 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) are mosquito-borne alphaviruses endemic in East Africa that cause acute febrile illness and arthritis. The objectives of this study were to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV and ONNV in coastal Kenya and link it to demographics and other risk factors. Demographic and exposure questionnaires were administered to 1,848 participants recruited from two village clusters (Milalani-Nganja and Vuga) in 2009. Sera were tested for alphavirus exposure using standardized CHIKV IgG ELISA protocols and confirmed with plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Logistic regression models were used to determine the variables associated with seropositivity. Weighted K test for global clustering of houses with alphavirus positive participants was performed for distance ranges of 50-1,000 meters, and G* statistic and kernel density mapping were used to identify locations of higher seroprevalence. 486 (26%) participants were seropositive by IgG ELISA. Of 443 PRNT confirmed positives, 25 samples (6%) were CHIKV+, 250 samples (56%) were ONNV+, and 168 samples (38%) had high titers for both. Age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR 1.01 per year, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.01); however, younger adults were more likely to be seropositive than older adults. Males were less likely to be seropositive (p<0.05; OR 0.79, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.97). Adults who owned a bicycle (p<0.05; OR 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.85) or motor vehicle (p<0.05; OR 4.64, 95% C.I. 1.19-18.05) were more likely to be seropositive. Spatial analysis demonstrated hotspots of transmission within each village and clustering among local households in Milalani-Nganja, peaking at the 200-500m range. Alphavirus exposure, particularly ONNV exposure, is common in coastal Kenya with ongoing interepidemic transmission of both ONNV and CHIKV. Women and adults were more likely to be seropositive. Household location may be a defining factor for the ecology of alphaviral transmission in this region.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 02/2015; 9(2):e0003436. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003436 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background West Nile virus (WNV) has a wide geographical distribution and has been associated to cause neurological disease in humans and horses. Mosquitoes are the traditional vectors for WNV; however, the virus has also been isolated from some tick species in North Africa and Europe which could be a means of introduction and spread of the virus over long distances through migratory birds. Although WNV has been isolated in mosquitoes in Kenya, paucity of genetic and pathogenicity data exists. We previously reported the isolation of WNV from ticks collected from livestock and wildlife in Ijara District of Kenya, a hotspot for arbovirus activity. Here we report the full genome sequence and phylogenetic investigation of their origin and relation to strains from other regions in Africa and beyond.MethodsA total of 10,488 ticks were sampled from restrained animal hosts, classified to species and processed in pools of up to eight ticks per pool. Virus screening was performed by cell culture, RT-PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the evolutionary relationships of our isolate.ResultsAmong other viruses, WNV was isolated from a pool of Rhipicephalus pulchellus sampled from cattle, sequenced and submitted to GenBank (Accession number: KC243146). Comparative analysis with 27 different strains from other regions revealed that our isolate belongs to lineage 1 and clustered relatively closely to isolates from North Africa and Europe, Russia and the United States. Overall, Bayesian analysis based on nucleotide sequences showed that lineage 1 strains including the Kenyan strain had diverged 200 years ago from lineage 2 strains of southern Africa. Ijara strain collected from a tick sampled on livestock was closest to another Kenyan strain and had diverged 20 years ago from strains detected in Morocco and Europe and 30 years ago from strains identified in the USA.Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterized WNV strain isolated from R. pulchellus. The epidemiological role of this tick in WNV transmission and dissemination remains equivocal but presents tick verses mosquito virus transmission that over the years has been neglected. Genetic data of this strain suggest that lineage 1 strains from Africa could be dispersed through tick vectors by wild migratory birds to Europe and beyond.Parasites & Vectors 11/2014; 7(1):542. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1310416131408627 · 3.25 Impact Factor