Outcome for the extremely premature neonate: how far do we push the edge?
ABSTRACT Significant advances in perinatal and neonatal medicine over the last 20 years and the recent emergence of fetal surgery has resulted in anesthesia providers caring for a growing number of infants born at the margin of viability. Anesthetic management in this patient population has to take into consideration the immature function of many vital organ systems as well as the effects of the underlying disease processes, which can frequently lead to severe physiological derangements. Accordingly, premature infants presenting for major surgeries early in life can represent a significant anesthetic challenge. However, even with advanced anesthetic and surgical management and optimal intensive care, extremely premature infants face substantial postoperative morbidity and mortality, as well as prolonged hospital courses. In this article, we will discuss the following questions: How far have we come in improving outcomes of extreme prematurity? And what will the future medical and societal challenges be, as we continue to redefine the limits of viability?
- SourceAvailable from: Vidya ChidambaranInternational anesthesiology clinics 01/2012; 50(4):66-82. DOI:10.1097/AIA.0b013e31826f3284
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Anesthetic and operative interventions in neonates remain hazardous procedures, given the vulnerability of the patients in this pediatric population. The aim was to determine the preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with 30-day post-operative mortality and describe mortality outcomes following neonatal surgery under general anesthesia in our center. Methods: Infants less than 28 days of age who underwent general anesthesia for surgery during an 11-year period (2000 – 2010) in our tertiary care pediatric center were retrospectively identified using the pediatric intensive care unit database. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with 30-day post-operative mortality. Results: Of the 437 infants in the study (median gestational age at birth 37 weeks, median birth weight 2,760 grams), 28 (6.4%) patients died before hospital discharge. Of these, 22 patients died within the first post-operative month. Logistic regression analysis showed increased odds of 30-day postoperative mortality among patients who presented American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) score 3 or above (odds ratio 19.268; 95%CI 2.523 – 147.132) and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis/gastrointestinal perforation (OR 5.291; 95%CI 1.962 – 14.266), compared to those who did not. Conclusion: The overall in-hospital mortality of 6.4% is within the prevalence reported for developed countries. Establishing ASA score 3 or above and necrotizing enterocolitis/gastrointestinal perforation as independent risk factors for early mortality in neonatal surgery may help clinicians to more adequately manage this high risk population.Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 12/2013; 16(4):943-952. DOI:10.1590/S1415-790X2013000400014
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ABSTRACT: Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), born at less than 28 weeks' estimated gestational age, suffer the greatest consequences of prematurity. There have been significant advances in their care over the last several decades, but the prospects for major advances within traditional treatment modalities appear limited. An artificial placenta using extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been investigated in the laboratory as a new advance in the treatment of ELGANs. We review the concept of an artificial placenta, the purported benefits, and the most recent research efforts in this area. For 50 years, researchers have attempted to develop an artificial placenta based on ECLS. Traditional artificial placenta strategies have been based on arteriovenous ECLS using the umbilical vessels with moderate success. Recently, the use of venovenous ECLS and miniaturization of ECLS components have shown potential for creating a next-generation artificial placenta. ELGANs suffer the greatest morbidity and mortality of prematurity, and are poised to benefit from a paradigm shift in the treatment. Although challenges remain, the artificial placenta is feasible. An artificial placenta would not only protect ELGANs from the complications of mechanical ventilation, but also support their development until a stage of greater maturity, preparing them for a life free of the sequelae of prematurity.Current opinion in pediatrics 05/2014; 26(3). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000083 · 2.74 Impact Factor