Perceptions of insulin therapy amongst Asian patients with diabetes in Singapore.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of insulin refusal amongst Singaporean patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, to compare perceptions regarding insulin therapy use between patients who were willing to use insulin and those who were not and to identify demographic factors that might predict insulin refusal.
A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey incorporating demographic variables and 17 perceptions regarding insulin use (14 negative and three positive) was conducted among a sample of 265 patients attending a public primary healthcare centre.
Seven of every 10 patients expressed unwillingness to use insulin therapy (70.6%). The greatest differences in perceptions between patients willing to use insulin therapy and those who were not included fear of not being able to inject insulin correctly (47.4 vs. 70.6%), fear of pain (44.9 vs. 65.8%), belief that insulin therapy would make it difficult to fulfil responsibilities at work and home (46.2 vs. 66.8%) and belief that insulin therapy improved diabetes control (82.1 vs. 58.3%). A tertiary level of education was associated with willingness to use insulin (odds ratio 3.3, confidence interval 1.8-6.1), and significant differences in perceptions were present in patients with different educational levels.
Insulin refusal is an important problem amongst our patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings of this study suggest that interventions aimed at increasing insulin therapy use should focus on injection-related concerns, perceived lifestyle adaptations and correction of misconceptions. Different interventions may also be required for patients of different educational groups.
- SourceAvailable from: Tahir Mehmood Khan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aim To gain insight into type-2 diabetic patients’ perceptions and beliefs about the use of insulin, to explore barriers to initiation of insulin and to evaluate the impact of a short educational intervention regarding patients’ resistance to using insulin injections. Subjects and methods This is an exploratory qualitative study. One-to-one in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of type-2 diabetic patients. Then, a short educational intervention was conducted with the participants. After the intervention, the participants were interviewed to evaluate their acceptance of insulin initiation. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was conducted and the analysis was reviewed independently by two researchers. Results A total of 13 diabetic patients were included in the study. Before the intervention, 11 subjects refused initiation of insulin. Resistance to initiation of insulin was influenced by misconceptions about insulin therapy, psychological barriers and fear, lack of self-efficacy and fear of adverse effects. All subjects perceived that insulin should only be initiated in very severe diabetes. Some participants demonstrated lack of belief in insulin efficacy. Psychological barriers and fears such as fear of self-injection and personal phobia about blood, needle and pain as well as perceived side effects also hindered insulin acceptance. Conclusion The study findings revealed that misconceptions about insulin use and psychological barriers played a major role in patients’ resistance to initiation of insulin therapy. The study demonstrated, however, that a short educational intervention could dispel patients’ fears and erroneous beliefs and help them to start insulin therapy.Journal of Public Health. 01/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Patients with type 2 diabetes often require insulin as the disease progresses. However, health care professionals frequently encounter challenges when managing patients who require insulin therapy. Understanding how health care professionals perceive the barriers faced by patients on insulin will facilitate care and treatment strategies. This study explores the views of Malaysian health care professionals on the barriers faced by patients using insulin. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health care professionals involved in diabetes care using insulin. Forty-one health care professionals participated in the study, consisting of primary care doctors (n = 20), family medicine specialists (n = 10), government policymakers (n = 5), diabetes educators (n = 3), endocrinologists (n = 2), and one pharmacist. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach. FIVE THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED AS BARRIERS: side effects, patient education, negative perceptions, blood glucose monitoring, and patient adherence to treatment and follow-up. Patients perceive that insulin therapy causes numerous negative side effects. There is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and how to optimize insulin therapy. Cost of treatment and patient ignorance are highlighted when discussing patient self-monitoring of blood glucose. Finally, health care professionals identified a lack of a follow-up system, especially for patients who do not keep to regular appointments. This study identifies five substantial barriers to optimizing insulin therapy. Health care professionals who successfully identify and address these issues will empower patients to achieve effective self-management. System barriers require government agency in establishing insulin follow-up programs, multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, and subsidies for glucometers and test strips.Patient Preference and Adherence 01/2013; 7:103-9. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients refuse insulin therapy even when they require this modality of treatment. However, some eventually accept insulin. This study aimed to explore the T2DM patients' reasons for accepting insulin therapy and their initial barriers to use insulin. This qualitative study interviewed twenty-one T2DM patients at a primary care clinic who had been on insulin for more than a year through three in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions. A semi structured interview protocol was used and the sessions were audio-recorded. Subsequently, thematic analysis was conducted to identify major themes. The participants' acceptance of insulin was influenced by their concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin. Concerns about complications of poorly controlled diabetes and side effects of other treatment regime had resulted in insulin acceptance among the participants. They also had a strong belief in insulin benefits and effectiveness. These concerns and beliefs were the results of having good knowledge about the diabetes and insulin, experiential learning as well as doctors' practical and emotional support helped them to accept insulin therapy and become efficient in self-care management. These factors also allayed their negative concerns and beliefs towards diabetes and insulin, which were their barriers for insulin acceptance as it caused fear to use insulin. These negative concerns were related to injection (self-injection, needle phobia, injection pain), and insulin use (inconvenience, embarrassment, lifestyle restriction, negative social stigma, and poor self-efficacy), whereas the negative beliefs were 'insulin could cause organ damage', 'their diabetes was not serious enough', 'insulin is for life-long', and 'insulin was for more severe disease only'. Exploring patients' concerns and beliefs about diabetes and insulin is crucial to assist physicians in delivering patient-centered care. By understanding this, physicians could address their concerns with aim to modify their patients' misconceptions towards insulin therapy. In addition, continuous educations as well as practical and emotional support from others were found to be valuable for insulin acceptance.Trial registration: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia FF-214-2009.BMC Family Practice 10/2013; 14(1):164. · 1.61 Impact Factor