Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Computational Study of the Photochemistry of Diphenylphosphoryl Azide: Direct Spectroscopic Observation of a Singlet Phosphorylnitrene.
ABSTRACT The photochemistry of diphenylphosphoryl azide was studied by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, by chemical analysis of light-induced reaction products, and by RI-CC2/TZVP and TD-B3LYP/TZVP computational methods. Theoretical methods predicted two possible mechanisms for singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene formation from the photoexcited phosphoryl azide. (i) Energy transfer from the (π,π*) singlet excited state, localized on a phenyl ring, to the azide moiety, thereby leading to the formation of the singlet excited azide, which subsequently loses molecular nitrogen to form the singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. (ii) Direct irradiation of the azide moiety to form an excited singlet state of the azide, which in turn loses molecular nitrogen to form the singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. Two transient species were observed upon ultrafast photolysis (260 nm) of diphenylphosphoryl azide. The first transient absorption, centered at 430 nm (lifetime (τ) ∼ 28 ps), was assigned to a (π,π*) singlet S(1) excited state localized on a phenyl ring, and the second transient observed at 525 nm (τ ∼ 480 ps) was assigned to singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene. Experimental and computational results obtained from the study of diphenyl phosphoramidate, along with the results obtained with diphenylphosphoryl azide, supported the mechanism of energy transfer from the singlet excited phenyl ring to the azide moiety, followed by nitrogen extrusion to form the singlet phosphorylnitrene. Ultrafast time-resolved studies performed on diphenylphosphoryl azide with the singlet nitrene quencher, tris(trimethylsilyl)silane, confirmed the spectroscopic assignment of singlet diphenylphosphorylnitrene to the 525 nm absorption band.
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ABSTRACT: We designed, synthesized and screened a library of analogs of the organophosphate pesticide metabolite paraoxon against a recombinant variant of human serum paraoxonase-1. Alterations of both the aryloxy leaving group and the retained alkyl chains of paraoxon analogs resulted in substantial changes to binding and hydrolysis, as measured directly by spectrophotometric methods or in competition experiments with paraoxon. Increases or decreases in the steric bulk of the retained groups generally reduced the rate of hydrolysis, while modifications of the leaving group modulated both binding and turnover. Studies on the hydrolysis of phosphoryl azide analogs as well as amino-modified paraoxon analogs, the former being developed as photo-affinity labels, found enhanced tolerance of structural modifications, when compared with O-alkyl substituted molecules. Results from computational modeling predict a predominant active site binding mode for these molecules which is consistent with several proposed catalytic mechanisms in the literature, and from which a molecular-level explanation of the experimental trends is attempted. Overall, the results of this study suggest that while paraoxonase-1 is a promiscuous enzyme, there are substantial constraints in the active site pocket, which may relate to both the leaving group and the retained portion of paraoxon analogs.Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 12/2012; 25(12):1247-1260. DOI:10.1002/poc.3002 · 1.23 Impact Factor