Specialist early and immediate repair of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bile duct injuries is associated with an improved long-term outcome.

University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
Annals of surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 03/2011; 253(3):553-60. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e318208fad3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A majority of bile duct injuries (BDI) sustained during laparoscopic cholecystectomy require formal surgical reconstruction, and traditionally this repair is performed late. We aimed to assess long-term outcomes after repair, focusing on our preferred early approach.
A total of 200 BDI patients [age 54(20-83); 64 male], followed up for median 60 (5-212) months were assessed for morbidity. Factors contributing to this were analyzed with a univariate and multivariate analysis.
A total of 112 (56%) patients were repaired by specialist hepatobiliary surgeons [timing of repair: immediate, n = 28; early (<21 days), n = 43; and late (>21 days) n = 41], whereas 45 (22%) underwent repair by nonspecialist surgeons before specialist referral [immediate, n = 16; early, n = 26 and late, n = 03]. Outcomes after immediate and early repairs were comparable to late repairs when performed by specialists [recurrent cholangitis:11%, 12%, and 10%; P = 0.96, NS; re-stricture:18%,5%, and 29%; P = 0.01; nonsurgical intervention: 14%, 5%, and 24%; P<0.03; redo surgery: 4%, 2%, and 5%; P = 0.81, NS; overall morbidity: 21%, 14%, and 39%; P<0.02]. On multivariate analysis, immediate and early repairs done by nonspecialist surgeons were independent risk factors (P < 0.05) for recurrent cholangitis [50% and 27%], re-stricturing (75% and 61%), redo reconstructions (31% and 61%), and overall morbidity (75% and 84%).
Immediate and early repair after BDI results in comparable, if not better long-term outcomes compared to late repair when performed by specialists.

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    ABSTRACT: Major bile duct injury (MBDI) remains frequent after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) reaching 0.3 to 0.6 % and is associated with a significant mortality rate. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the factors likely to influence the long-term results of surgical repair for MBDI occurring after LC. Medical records of patients referred to our referral center from January 1992 to January 2010 for management of bile duct injury following LC were retrospectively analyzed, and patients with MBDI were identified. Clinicopathological factors likely to influence long-term results after surgical repair were assessed by univariate and multivariable analysis. During the study period, 38 patients were treated for MBDI. These 38 patients underwent Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) or HJ revision in 25 (66 %) and 13 (34 %) cases, respectively. The median follow-up period was 93 (26-204) months. A Clavien-Dindo post-operative morbidity class >3 occurred in 10 (26 %) cases and was independently associated with a surgical repair performed during a sepsis period (OR = 102.5; IC 95 % [7.12; 11,352], p < 0.007). Long-term results showed that biliary strictures occurred in 5 (13 %) cases and were associated with sepsis (p < 0.006), liver cirrhosis (p < 0.002) and post-operative complications (p < 0.012). Multivariate analysis revealed that only liver cirrhosis remained predictive of stricture (OR = 26.4, 95 % CI [2; 1,018], p < 0.026). When MBDI occurs following LC, HJ seems to be the optimal treatment but should not be performed during a sepsis period. Long-term results are significantly altered by the presence of a biliary cirrhosis at time of repair.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 05/2014; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Biliary strictures following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C), which are often associated with vascular injuries, remain a serious problem to manage. The aim of this study was to review our experiences with postoperative biliary stricture.Methods This study involved 14 consecutive patients with biliary strictures that resulted from bile duct injuries during Lap-C between 1997 and 2013. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsPercutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) catheter dilatation was first attempted in eight patients, and five patients were successfully treated. Biliary re-stricture recurred in one patient after 34-month follow-up period. This patient underwent repeated catheter dilatations, which led to recurrent stricture resolution. All five patients maintained biliary tract patency over 72-month follow-up period. The remaining nine patients underwent surgical procedures, including hepaticojejunostomy in two patients, re-hepaticojejunostomy in two patients, and the remaining five patients, with biliary strictures involving the secondary biliary branch and concomitant vascular injuries underwent right hemihepatectomy with cholangiojejunostomy. There were no major postoperative complications. After 80-month follow-up period, all nine patients were alive without biliary stricture.ConclusionsPTBD catheter dilatation is recommended first for postoperative Lap-C-associated biliary strictures. In complicated injury patients with vascular injuries, right hemihepatectomy with cholangiojejunostomy should be indicated.
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    ABSTRACT: Late complications arising after bile duct injury (BDI) include biliary strictures, hepatic atrophy, cholangitis and intra-hepatic lithiasis. Later, fibrosis or even secondary biliary cirrhosis and portal hypertension can develop, enhanced by prolonged biliary obstruction associated with recurrent cholangitis. Secondary biliary cirrhosis resulting in associated hepatic failure or digestive tract bleeding due to portal hypertension is a substantial risk factor for morbidity and mortality after bile duct repair. Parameters that determine the management of late complications of BDI include the type of biliary injury, associated vascular injury, hepatic atrophy, the presence of intra-hepatic strictures or lithiasis, repetitive infectious complications, the quality of underlying parenchyma (fibrosis, secondary biliary cirrhosis) and the presence of portal hypertension. Endoscopic drainage is indicated for patients with uncontrolled acute sepsis, patients at high operative risk, patients with cirrhosis who are not eligible for liver transplantation and patients who have previously undergone several attempts at repair. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, whether de novo or as an iterative repair, is the technique of reference for post-cholecystectomy BDI. Hepatic resection is indicated in only rare instances, mainly in case of extended hilar stricture, multiple stone retention in one sector of the liver or in patients for whom the repair is deemed technically difficult. Liver transplantation is indicated only in exceptional circumstances, when secondary biliary cirrhosis is associated with liver failure and portal hypertension.
    Journal of Visceral Surgery 06/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor

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