Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 p30 interacts with REGgamma and modulates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to promote cell survival.
ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and a variety of inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 encodes a nuclear localizing protein, p30, that selectively alters viral and cellular gene expression, activates G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoints, and is essential for viral spread. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown of ectopically expressed p30 coupled with mass spectrometry to identify cellular binding partners of p30. Our data indicate that p30 specifically binds to cellular ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and REGγ (a nuclear 20 S proteasome activator). Under conditions of genotoxic stress, p30 expression was associated with reduced levels of ATM and increased cell survival. Knockdown or overexpression of REGγ paralleled p30 expression, suggesting an unexpected enhancement of p30 expression in the presence of REGγ. Finally, size exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of p30 in a high molecular mass complex along with ATM and REGγ. On the basis of our findings, we propose that HTLV-1 p30 interacts with ATM and REGγ to increase viral spread by facilitating cell survival.
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ABSTRACT: A retrovirus (ATLV) was unequivocally demonstrated in human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines by density (1.152-1.155 g/cm3) in a sucrose gradient, reverse transcriptase activity insensitive to actinomycin D, RNA labeled with [3H]uridine, and specific proteins with molecular weights of 11,000, 14,000, 17,000, 24,000, and 45,000. Furthermore, cDNA prepared by endogenous reaction with detergent-treated virions hybridized to 35S RNA containing poly(A), which was inducible by IdUrd treatment of a T-cell line derived from leukemic cells of the ATL, and the integrated form of ATLV proviral DNA was detected in T-cell lines derived from ATL. The ATLV proviral DNA was also detected in fresh peripheral lymphocytes from all five patients with ATL tested so far but not in those from healthy adults. On the other hand, ATLV protein of Mr 42,000 was found to be at least one of the ATL-associated antigen(s) that were previously detected in ATL-leukemic cells by all sera from patients with ATL. These findings on the close association of ATLV protein and proviral DNA with ATL are direct evidence for the possible involvement of the retrovirus ATLV in leukemogenesis of human ATL.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1982; 79(6):2031-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, encodes unique regulatory and accessory proteins in the pX region of the provirus, including the open reading frame II product p13(II). p13(II) localizes to mitochondria, binds farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase, an enzyme involved in posttranslational farnesylation of Ras, and alters Ras-dependent cell signaling and control of apoptosis. The role of p13(II) in virus infection in vivo remains undetermined. Herein, we analyzed the functional significance of p13(II) in HTLV-1 infection. We compared the infectivity of a human B-cell line that harbors an infectious molecular clone of HTLV-1 with a selective mutation that prevents the translation of p13(II) (729.ACH.p13) to the infectivity of a wild-type HTLV-1-expressing cell line (729.ACH). 729.ACH and 729.ACH.p13 producer lines had comparable infectivities for cultured rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and the fidelity of the start codon mutation in ACH.p13 was maintained after PBMC passage. In contrast, zero of six rabbits inoculated with 729.ACH.p13 cells failed to establish viral infection, whereas six of six rabbits inoculated with wild-type HTLV-1-expressing cells (729.ACH) were infected as measured by antibody responses, proviral load, and HTLV-1 p19 matrix antigen production from ex vivo-cultured PBMC. Our data are the first to indicate that the HTLV-1 mitochondrion-localizing protein p13(II) has an essential biological role during the early phase of virus infection in vivo.Journal of Virology 05/2006; 80(7):3469-76. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Loss of p53 function occurs during the development of most, if not all, tumour types. This paves the way for genomic instability, tumour-associated changes in metabolism, insensitivity to apoptotic signals, invasiveness and motility. However, the nature of the causal link between early tumorigenic events and the induction of the p53-mediated checkpoints that constitute a barrier to tumour progression remains uncertain. This Review considers the role of the DNA damage response, which is activated during the early stages of tumour development, in mobilizing the tumour suppression function of p53. The relationship between these events and oncogene-induced p53 activation through the ARF pathway is also discussed.Nature Reviews Cancer 10/2009; 9(10):714-23. · 29.54 Impact Factor