Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 p30 interacts with REGgamma and modulates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to promote cell survival.
ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and a variety of inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 encodes a nuclear localizing protein, p30, that selectively alters viral and cellular gene expression, activates G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoints, and is essential for viral spread. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown of ectopically expressed p30 coupled with mass spectrometry to identify cellular binding partners of p30. Our data indicate that p30 specifically binds to cellular ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and REGγ (a nuclear 20 S proteasome activator). Under conditions of genotoxic stress, p30 expression was associated with reduced levels of ATM and increased cell survival. Knockdown or overexpression of REGγ paralleled p30 expression, suggesting an unexpected enhancement of p30 expression in the presence of REGγ. Finally, size exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of p30 in a high molecular mass complex along with ATM and REGγ. On the basis of our findings, we propose that HTLV-1 p30 interacts with ATM and REGγ to increase viral spread by facilitating cell survival.
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ABSTRACT: Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are closely related human retroviruses, but have unique disease associations. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of an aggressive T-cell leukemia known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. HTLV-2 infection has not been clearly associated with any disease condition. Although both viruses can transform T cells in vitro, the HTLV-1 provirus is mainly detected in CD4+ T cells whereas HTLV-2 is mainly detected in CD8+ T cells of infected individuals. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode accessory proteins p30 and p28, respectively, which share partial amino acid homology and are required for viral persistence in vivo. The goal of this study was to identify host proteins interacting with p30 and p28 in order to understand their role in pathogenesis. Affinity-tag purification coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) analyses revealed 42 and 22 potential interacting cellular partners of p30 and p28, respectively. Of these, only three cellular proteins, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), hnRNP K and 60 S ribosomal protein L8 were detected in both p30 and p28 fractions. To validate the proteomic results, four interacting proteins were selected for further analyses using immunoblot assays. In full agreement with the MS analysis two cellular proteins REGγ and NEAF-interacting protein 30 (NIP30) selectively interacted with p30 and not with p28; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNP H1) bound to p28 and not to p30; and PRMT5 interacted with both p30 and p28. Further studies demonstrated that reduced levels of PRMT5 resulted in decreased HTLV-2 viral gene expression whereas the viral gene expression of HTLV-1 was unchanged. The comparisons of p30 and p28 host protein interaction proteome showed striking differences with some degree of overlap. PRMT5, one of the host proteins that interacted with both p30 and p28 differentially affected HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viral gene expression suggesting that PRMT5 is involved at different stages of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 biology. These findings suggest that distinct host protein interaction profiles of p30 and p28 could, in part, be responsible for differences in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 pathobiology. This study provides new avenues of investigation into mechanisms of viral infection, tropism and persistence.Retrovirology 08/2012; 9:64. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) causes T cell suppression by interference with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation. We previously found that this interference affected the activity of splice regulatory proteins and a T cell inhibitory protein isoform was produced from an alternatively spliced pre-mRNA. Differentially regulated and alternatively splice variant transcripts accumulating in response to PI3K abrogation in T cells potentially encode proteins involved in T cell silencing. To test this hypothesis at the cellular level, we performed a Human Exon 1.0 ST Array on RNAs isolated from T cells stimulated only or stimulated after PI3K inhibition. We developed a simple algorithm based on a splicing index to detect genes that undergo alternative splicing (AS) or are differentially regulated (RG) upon T cell suppression. Applying our algorithm to the data, 9% of the genes were assigned as AS, while only 3% were attributed to RG. Though there are overlaps, AS and RG genes differed with regard to functional regulation, and were found to be enriched in different functional groups. AS genes targeted extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways, while RG genes were mainly enriched in cytokine-receptor interaction and Jak-STAT. When combined, AS/RG dependent alterations targeted pathways essential for T cell receptor signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell cycle entry. PI3K abrogation interferes with key T cell activation processes through both differential expression and alternative splicing, which together actively contribute to T cell suppression.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e50695. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive studies of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro, and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2013; 4:275.