Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to allergy: Disease-related modification of consumption?
ABSTRACT Previous largely cross-sectional studies suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of allergic disease in children, but results are conflicting.
To investigate the association between current fruit or vegetable intake and allergic disease in 8-year-old Swedish children, and to evaluate the potential effect of disease-related modification of consumption.
Cross-sectional data were obtained from a Swedish birth cohort study. Information on fruit and vegetable consumption as well as symptoms and diagnoses of allergic diseases was obtained by parental questionnaires at the 8-year follow-up. Allergen-specific IgE levels against food and inhalant allergens were obtained from blood samples collected at age 8 years. In total, 2447 children were included. Data were analyzed with logistic regression.
An inverse relation was observed between total fruit consumption and rhinitis (odds ratio, highest vs lowest quartile, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86; P for trend, .002), whereas no association was observed for total vegetable intake. In analyses of individual foods, intake of apples/pears and carrots was inversely associated with rhinitis, asthma, and atopic sensitization. Fifty percent of the children with rhinitis were sensitized against birch pollen, which may cross-react with apples and carrots. After exclusion of children who reported food-related allergic symptoms, most of the observed inverse associations moved toward the null and became nonsignificant.
We confirm the inverse associations between fruit intake and allergic disease in children observed in earlier studies. However, our data also indicate that disease-related modification of consumption contributed to this association.
- SourceAvailable from: Syed Umer Abdullah[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of low molecular weight hydrophobic conserved proteins comprising four intramolecular disulphide bonds making the structure very resistant to proteolysis and harsh food processing conditions. These proteins are identified as strong allergens sensitizing through the gut and share epitopes with LTPs from closely related species. Peach LTP, Pru p 3 is the primary sensitizer in the Mediterranean area being the most frequent food allergen. Wheat LTP, Tri a 14 is a relatively weak allergen with a very low prevalence. The study here compares the structural properties of these proteins and their resistance to various digestive and processing processes. Ligand binding experiments showed that Pru p 3 binds to ligands more strongly than Tri a 14. The gastroduodenal digestion of these LTPs revealed that both are stable to gastric digestion and while Pru p 3 is susceptible to duodenal digestion, Tri a 14 digestion is negligible. Ligand binding did not affect the digestibility of Pru p 3 but improved the duodenal digestibility of Tri a 14. The IgE binding studies using sera from peach allergic individuals confirmed that both Pru p 3 and its digestion fragments in the presence and absence of ligand were IgE reactive. Model processing conditions were employed to treat these LTPs. It was found that heat treatment destroys the secondary structure of Pru p 3 at 121°C and slightly affects that of Tri a 14. Heat treatment also increased the susceptibility of Pru p 3 to gastric digestion while Tri a 14 was less affected. The IgE binding studies showed that heat treatment of Pru p 3 appeared to reduce its IgE recognition while its digestion fragments lost all of their IgE reactivity. To investigate the effect of the food matrix on the digestibility of these LTPs, peach peel containing Pru p 3 and wheat flour containing Tri a 14 were digested under simulated conditions. It was found that they were resistant to proteolysis in their native matrices. Effect of heat treatment to the food matrix again confirmed that both of these proteins were more stable to heat in the matrix and were less digestible. In conclusion, this study shows that there are factors in food matrices which enhance structural stability of LTPs to both processing and digestion. Thus factors such as the effect of food matrix and effect of processing should be taken into account in assessing the allergenic risk posed by foods and not simply rely on data from purified proteins.02/2012, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Prof. Clare Mills
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is abundant research relevant to genetic and environmental influences on asthma and hayfever, but little is known about dietary risk factors in Australian adults. This study's purpose was to identify dietary factors associated with lifetime asthma (AS) and asthma or hayfever (AS/HF) diagnosis in Australian middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: From The 45 and Up Study baseline self-report data, this study included 156,035 adult men and women. Participants were sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia in 2006--2009. About 12% of participants reported ever receiving an AS diagnosis (men 10%; women 14%) and 23% reported AS/HF diagnosis (men 19%; women 26%). Following principle components factor analysis, dietary items loaded onto one of four factors for men (meats/cheese; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; grains/ alcohol) or five factors for women (meats; fruits/vegetables; poultry/seafood; cereal/alcohol; brown bread/cheese). Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dietary factors and AS or AS/HF diagnosis. RESULTS: For men, the meats/cheese factor was positively associated with AS (AOR = adjusted odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.08, 1.28; Ptrend = 0.001) and AS/HF (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.29; Ptrend < 0.001). Poultry/seafood was also associated with AS/HF in men (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.04, 1.17; Ptrend = 0.002). For women, significant risk factors for AS/HF included meats (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.19, 1.31; Ptrend = 0.001), poultry/seafood (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.016), and fruits/vegetables (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.12; Ptrend = 0.011). In contrast, the cheese/brown bread dietary factor was protective against AS in women (AOR for highest versus lowest quintile = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.82, 0.94; Ptrend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Generally, diets marked by greater intakes of meats, poultry, and seafood were associated with diagnosed AS and AS/HF. Taken together, these findings suggest that adherence to a more meat-based diet may pose risk for AS and AS/HF in Australian adults.Nutrition Journal 10/2012; 11(1):84. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-11-84 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eosinophil recruitment to the airways is a characteristic feature of allergic asthma. Eotaxins are potent chemokines that regulate the recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation. Of these, CCL26 is linked to persistent eosinophil recruitment in the later phase of an allergic response. We evaluated the effectiveness of 10 different blackcurrant cultivar polyphenolic extracts in suppressing CCL26 secretion in stimulated human alveolar epithelial cells. Correlation analysis to identify the potential blackcurrant composition constituent(s) involved in CCL26 suppression and the effects of the four major anthocyanins present in blackcurrants to validate results was conducted. All blackcurrant polyphenolic extracts suppressed CCL26 secretion by lung alveolar cells; however, differential efficacy was observed, which was attributed to their cultivar-specific polyphenolic composition profiles. We identified that the ratio of concentrations of delphinidin glycosides to cyanidin glycosides in the blackcurrant cultivars was an important determinant in influencing CCL26 suppression in lung cells. Our findings support the potential use of blackcurrants or blackcurrant-derived foods/ingredients in managing lung inflammation and the development of specific cultivars as functional foods/ingredients with beneficial biological activities.02/2014; 5(4). DOI:10.1039/c3fo60568j