High-dose vitamin D during intensive-phase antimicrobial treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet 377, 242-250

Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 01/2011; 377(9761):242-50. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61889-2
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D was used to treat tuberculosis in the pre-antibiotic era, and its metabolites induce antimycobacterial immunity in vitro. Clinical trials investigating the effect of adjunctive vitamin D on sputum culture conversion are absent.
We undertook a multicentre randomised controlled trial of adjunctive vitamin D in adults with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in London, UK. 146 patients were allocated to receive 2·5 mg vitamin D(3) or placebo at baseline and 14, 28, and 42 days after starting standard tuberculosis treatment. The primary endpoint was time from initiation of antimicrobial treatment to sputum culture conversion. Patients were genotyped for TaqI and FokI polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor, and interaction analyses were done to assess the influence of the vitamin D receptor genotype on response to vitamin D(3). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00419068.
126 patients were included in the primary efficacy analysis (62 assigned to intervention, 64 assigned to placebo). Median time to sputum culture conversion was 36·0 days in the intervention group and 43·5 days in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio 1·39, 95% CI 0·90-2·16; p=0.14). TaqI genotype modified the effect of vitamin D supplementation on time to sputum culture conversion (p(interaction)=0·03), with enhanced response seen only in patients with the tt genotype (8·09, 95% CI 1·36-48·01; p=0·02). FokI genotype did not modify the effect of vitamin D supplementation (p(interaction)=0·85). Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration at 56 days was 101·4 nmol/L in the intervention group and 22·8 nmol/L in the placebo group (95% CI for difference 68·6-88·2; p<0·0001).
Administration of four doses of 2·5 mg vitamin D(3) increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in patients receiving intensive-phase treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. Vitamin D did not significantly affect time to sputum culture conversion in the whole study population, but it did significantly hasten sputum culture conversion in participants with the tt genotype of the TaqI vitamin D receptor polymorphism.
British Lung Foundation.

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    • "Recently, it has been reported that tuberculosis patients are deficient in both Vitamin A and Vitamin D in comparison to healthy controls [48]. Clinical trials for preventing/curing tuberculosis by Vitamin D administration alone has failed to yield encouraging results [49]. It should be noted that one of the major pathways through which Vitamin D is suggested to prevent tuberculosis is by suppression of TACO gene expression which is negatively regulated by the VDR–RXR heterodimer [50] [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is continuing as a problem of mankind. With evolution, MDR and XDR forms of tuberculosis have emerged from drug sensitive strain. MDR and XDR strains are resistant to most of the antibiotics, making the management more difficult. BCG vaccine is not providing complete protection against tuberculosis. Therefore new infections are spreading at a tremendous rate. At the present moment there is experimental evidence to believe that Vitamin A and Vitamin D has anti-mycobacterial property. It is in this context, we have hypothesized a host based approach using the above vitamins that can cause possible prevention and cure of tuberculosis with minimal chance of resistance or toxicity.
    Medical Hypotheses 01/2015; 84(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2014.12.022 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    • "The ethnicity-and geography-dependent susceptibility and resistance patterns to TB appear to be linked to the varying prevalence of these polymorphisms in different populations [18]. Though these polymorphisms have been analyzed in relatively few studies, including only one prospective trial of vitamin D administration in TB [25], the VDR polymorphism appears to affect the efficacy of the vitamin D administered; Martineau et al. [25] only observed a significantly accelerated sputum conversion rate in TB patients receiving vitamin D supplementation when participants were stratified based on genotype of the TaqI polymorphism. "

    Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology 08/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2014.08.002
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    • "This health claim is targeting men and women 60 years of age and older and the dose required is a daily consumption of 800 IU vitamin D, which can come from all sources. Further emerging vitamin D health relationships include physiological parameters like improved immune response (Baeke et al., 2010; Schwalfenberg, 2011; Hewison, 2012; White, 2012), improved respiratory health(Berry et al., 2011; Charan et al., 2012; Choi et al., 2013; Hirani, 2013) possibly also relate to reduced tuberculosis incidence (Nnoaham and Clarke, 2008; Martineau et al., 2011; Mitchell et al., 2011; Coussens et al., 2012; Salahuddin et al., 2013; Huaman et al., 2014); and reduced risk to develop autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (Solomon and Whitham, 2010; Cantorna, 2012; Dobson et al., 2013) or type 1 diabetes (Hypponen et al., 2001; Holick, 2003; Ramos-Lopez et al., 2006; Baeke et al., 2010; De Boer et al., 2012; Dong et al., 2013; Van Belle et al., 2013). In chronic, non-communicable diseases, vitamin D deficiency is being discussed to possibly ameliorate the incidence of some neoplastic diseases like colorectal, lung, prostate, and breast cancers (Ng et al., 2008; Rosen et al., 2012; Welsh, 2012; Cheng et al., 2013); cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke (Forman et al., 2007; Giovannucci et al., 2008; Gardner et al., 2011; Bischoff-Ferrari et al., 2012; Tamez and Thadhani, 2012; Karakas et al., 2013; Pilz et al., 2013a; Schroten et al., 2013); life-style diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes (Pittas et al., 2007; González-Molero et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2013; Pilz et al., 2013b; Schottker et al., 2013; Tsur et al., 2013; Van Belle et al., 2013; Bouillon et al., 2014); diseases related to the decline in sight function including age-related macular degeneration (Parekh et al., 2007; Millen et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2012); and neurological disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (Buell and Dawson-Hughes, 2008; Annweiler et al., 2012; Eyles et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient vitam
    Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:248. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00248 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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