Probing the relative contribution of the first and second responses to sensory gating indices: A meta-analysis

Department of Occupational Therapy, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska 68178, USA.
Psychophysiology (Impact Factor: 3.18). 07/2011; 48(7):980-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01168.x
Source: PubMed


Sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia patients has been well-documented. However, a central conceptual issue, regarding whether the gating deficit results from an abnormal initial response (S1) or difficulty in attenuating the response to the repeating stimulus (S2), raise doubts about the validity and utility of the S2/S1 ratio as a measure of sensory gating. This meta-analysis study, therefore, sought to determine the consistency and relative magnitude of the effect of the two essential components (S1 and S2) and the ratio. The results of weighted random effects meta-analysis revealed that the overall effect sizes for the S1 amplitude, S2 amplitude, and P50 S2/S1 ratio were -0.19 (small), 0.65 (medium to large), and 0.93 (large), respectively. These results confirm that the S2/S1 ratio and the repeating (S2) stimulus differ robustly between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in contrast to the consistent but smaller effect size for the S1 amplitude. These findings are more likely to reflect defective inhibition of repeating redundant input rather than an abnormal response to novel stimuli.

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    • "As outlined in the introduction, it is already problematic to equate such an impaired AEP response suppression to a deficiency of perceptual filter mechanisms (or 'sensory gating'), because the number of studies that actually have been able to establish a link between impaired P50/N100/P200 suppression and self-reported perceptual anomalies is as yet very limited (Micoulaud-Franchi et al., 2012, 2014; but: Jin et al., 1998; Johannesen et al., 2008). However, based on previous and current research, it is unsubstantiated to equate 'sensory gating' and 'habituation' (as prominent example: Chang et al., 2011). Such inappropriate labeling might give rise to misleading conclusions about functional impairments found in psychiatric and neurological patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether the response decrement of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) after stimulus repetition is affected by an interplay between sensitization and habituation. AEPs were recorded in 18 healthy participants. Stimulation consisted of trains with eight tones. The 6th stimulus of each train was a frequency deviant. The N100 amplitude to the 1st stimulus of the train was quantified in each trial. Trials with initially strong N100 responses and with initially weak N100 responses were averaged separately. For the total trial sample, the N100 and P200 amplitudes decreased from the 1st to the 2nd stimulus of the train but not thereafter. Trials with an initially strong N100 response were qualified by likewise larger N100 amplitudes to the 2nd stimulus, as compared to trials with initially weak N100 responses, and were characterized by a pronounced N100 amplitude decrease from standards to deviants. Our findings are difficult to reconcile with the view that the response decrement of AEP components after stimulus repetition is modulated by sensitization and habituation, as no evidence for either of these two processes could be obtained. The study provides further evidence against habituation as underlying mechanism for the AEP decrement after stimulus repetition. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2015.04.071 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    • "In humans, adaptation to repetitive auditory stimulation has been extensively studied and is now quite well characterized (Fruhstorfer et al., 1970; Potter et al., 2006; Rosburg et al., 2010; Chang et al., 2011; Grzeschik et al., 2013; Lanting et al., 2013). A main finding in both auditory habituation and gating studies has been that the shorter the period between stimulus presentations, the greater the attenuation observed (Roth et al., 1976; Budd et al., 1998; Muller- Gass et al., 2008; Rosburg et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: When sensory inputs are presented serially, response amplitudes to stimulus repetitions generally decrease as a function of presentation rate, diminishing rapidly as inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) fall below 1 s. This 'adaptation' is believed to represent mechanisms by which sensory systems reduce responsivity to consistent environmental inputs, freeing resources to respond to potentially more relevant inputs. While auditory adaptation functions have been relatively well characterized, considerably less is known about visual adaptation in humans. Here, high-density visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded while two paradigms were used to interrogate visual adaptation. The first presented stimulus pairs with varying ISIs, comparing VEP amplitude to the second stimulus with that of the first (paired-presentation). The second involved blocks of stimulation (N = 100) at various ISIs and comparison of VEP amplitude between blocks of differing ISIs (block-presentation). Robust VEP modulations were evident as a function of presentation rate in the block-paradigm, with strongest modulations in the 130-150 ms and 160-180 ms visual processing phases. In paired-presentations, with ISIs of just 200-300 ms, an enhancement of VEP was evident when comparing S2 with S1, with no significant effect of presentation rate. Importantly, in block-presentations, adaptation effects were statistically robust at the individual participant level. These data suggest that a more taxing block-presentation paradigm is better suited to engage visual adaptation mechanisms than a paired-presentation design. The increased sensitivity of the visual processing metric obtained in the block-paradigm has implications for the examination of visual processing deficits in clinical populations. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 02/2015; 41(7). DOI:10.1111/ejn.12849 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Similar conclusions found also several others meta-analytic or detailed review studies which show sensory gating impairments in early stages of schizophrenia that become more prominent in chronic stages of schizophrenia.8,11,13,15,114 Further meta-analytical data by Chang et al115 confirm that the sensory gating deficit in patients with schizophrenia is well documented; nevertheless, certain findings raise doubts about the validity and utility of the S2/S1 ratio as a measure of sensory gating. The meta-analytical results confirm that the S2/S1 ratio and the repeating (S2) stimulus discriminate effectively between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, in contrast with the consistent but smaller effect size for the S1 amplitude, and these findings likely reflect inhibitory deficits related to repeated redundant input. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sensory gating disturbances in schizophrenia are often described as an inability to filter redundant sensory stimuli that typically manifest as inability to gate neuronal responses related to the P50 wave, characterizing a decreased ability of the brain to inhibit various responses to insignificant stimuli. It implicates various deficits of perceptual and attentional functions, and this inability to inhibit, or "gate", irrelevant sensory inputs leads to sensory and information overload that also may result in neuronal hyperexcitability related to disturbances of habituation mechanisms. These findings seem to be particularly important in the context of modern electrophysiological and neuroimaging data suggesting that the filtering deficits in schizophrenia are likely related to deficits in the integrity of connections between various brain areas. As a consequence, this brain disintegration produces disconnection of information, disrupted binding, and disintegration of consciousness that in terms of modern neuroscience could connect original Bleuler's concept of "split mind" with research of neural information integration.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 07/2014; 10:1309-15. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S64219 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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