Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-infected and uninfected patients: results from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT HIV clinical care now involves prevention and treatment of age-associated comorbidity. Although physical function is an established correlate to comorbidity in older adults without HIV infection, its role in aging of HIV-infected adults is not well understood. To investigate this question we conducted cross-sectional analyses including linear regression models of physical function in 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 uninfected patients enrolled 2002-2006 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-8-site (VACS-8). Baseline self-reported physical function correlated with the Short Form-12 physical subscale (ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001), and predicted survival. Across the age groups decline in physical function per year was greater in HIV-infected patients (β(coef) -0.25, p < 0.001) compared to uninfected patients (β(coef) -0.08, p = 0.03). This difference, although statistically significant (p < 0.01), was small. Function in the average 50-year old HIV-infected subject was equivalent to the average 51.5-year-old uninfected subject. History of cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor of poor function, but the effect was similar across groups. Chronic pulmonary disease had a differential effect on function by HIV status (Δβ(coef) -3.5, p = 0.03). A 50-year-old HIV-infected subject with chronic pulmonary disease had the equivalent level of function as a 68.1-year-old uninfected subject with chronic pulmonary disease. We conclude that age-associated comorbidity affects physical function in HIV-infected patients, and may modify the effect of aging. Longitudinal research with markers of disease severity is needed to investigate loss of physical function with aging, and to develop age-specific HIV care guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: The life expectancy for HIV-positive individuals has improved over time due to increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Yet, as the HIV-positive population ages, their risk of developing cancers also increases. Studies of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) among elderly HIV-infected persons are quite limited. We examined the age patterns of KS incidence and an association between age and KS risk in a US cohort of 3458 HIV-infected men, the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson distribution was used to calculate incidence rates and respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to examine the association between age and KS risk. There were 534 incident KS cases with a total follow-up time of 25,134 person-years. The overall KS incidence rate was 2.13 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 1.95-2.32) (Non-HAART users-ever: 5.57 per 100 person-years [95% CI: 5.09-6.10]; HAART users-ever: 0.39 per 100 person-years [95% CI: 0.31-0.51]). Overall, KS frequency and incidence declined with age, even in the oldest age group (ptrend < 0.0001). However, among non-HAART users-ever, the oldest age group had the highest incidence rate ratio compared to younger individuals [15.01, 95% CI: 6.12-44.22]). While the incidence of KS decreased with age, older HIV-infected persons who do not receive HAART are still at increased risk of KS. As KS remains an important malignancy among HIV-infected persons, earlier HIV diagnoses and HAART initiation, particularly in older HIV-infected persons is warranted.Cancer Medicine 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104945. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to develop evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. We conducted a knowledge synthesis, combining research evidence specific to HIV, rehabilitation and ageing, with evidence on rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults with HIV. We included highly relevant HIV-specific research addressing rehabilitation and ageing (stream A) and high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults ageing with HIV (stream B). We extracted and synthesised relevant data from the evidence to draft evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation. Draft recommendations were refined based on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and clinician experience, values and preferences, reviewed by an interprofessional team for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) (quality) rating and revision and then circulated to PLHIV and clinicians for external endorsement and final refinement. We then devised overarching recommendations to broadly guide rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. This synthesis yielded 8 overarching and 52 specific recommendations. Thirty-six specific recommendations were derived from 108 moderate-level or high-level research articles (meta-analyses and systematic reviews) that described the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for comorbidities that may be experienced by older adults with HIV. Recommendations addressed rehabilitation interventions across eight health conditions: bone and joint disorders, cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, mental health challenges, cognitive impairments, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. Sixteen specific recommendations were derived from 42 research articles specific to rehabilitation with older adults with HIV. The quality of evidence from which these recommendations were derived was either low or very low, consisting primarily of narrative reviews or descriptive studies with small sample sizes. Recommendations addressed approaches to rehabilitation assessment and interventions, and contextual factors to consider for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. These evidence-informed recommendations provide a guide for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV.BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(5):e004692. · 2.06 Impact Factor