Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-infected and uninfected patients: results from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT HIV clinical care now involves prevention and treatment of age-associated comorbidity. Although physical function is an established correlate to comorbidity in older adults without HIV infection, its role in aging of HIV-infected adults is not well understood. To investigate this question we conducted cross-sectional analyses including linear regression models of physical function in 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 uninfected patients enrolled 2002-2006 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-8-site (VACS-8). Baseline self-reported physical function correlated with the Short Form-12 physical subscale (ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001), and predicted survival. Across the age groups decline in physical function per year was greater in HIV-infected patients (β(coef) -0.25, p < 0.001) compared to uninfected patients (β(coef) -0.08, p = 0.03). This difference, although statistically significant (p < 0.01), was small. Function in the average 50-year old HIV-infected subject was equivalent to the average 51.5-year-old uninfected subject. History of cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor of poor function, but the effect was similar across groups. Chronic pulmonary disease had a differential effect on function by HIV status (Δβ(coef) -3.5, p = 0.03). A 50-year-old HIV-infected subject with chronic pulmonary disease had the equivalent level of function as a 68.1-year-old uninfected subject with chronic pulmonary disease. We conclude that age-associated comorbidity affects physical function in HIV-infected patients, and may modify the effect of aging. Longitudinal research with markers of disease severity is needed to investigate loss of physical function with aging, and to develop age-specific HIV care guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The best method for assessment of functional status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected persons is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that 3 instruments to assess frailty or disability in elderly populations would perform similarly in HIV-1-infected persons. Methods: HIV-infected subjects 45 to 65 years old with plasma HIV-1 RNA <48 copies/mL were classified prospectively as low, moderate, or high function by Fried's frailty phenotype (FFP), the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and 400-m walk test. Functional instrument agreement was evaluated by weighted kappa statistic, and relationships with demographic or clinical factors were evaluated by odds ratios (OR). Results: There were 359 participants (85% male, mean age 52 years, mean CD4+ lymphocyte count 551 cells/µL) who were evaluated. Three percent to 8% were low, 31% to 51% were moderate, and 42% to 62% were high function. FFP, SPPB, and 400-m walk test had moderate agreement for functional classification (61%-64%; κ = 0.34-0.41). Across instruments, lower reported physical activity (OR ≯ 5.5; P ≤ .005), no current employment (OR ≯ 4.2; P < .02), arthritis (OR ≯ 6.5; P < .02), neurologic disease (OR ≯ 2.6; P < .05), debilitating pain (OR ≯ 5.4; P < .008), psychiatric disease (OR ≯3.1; P < .03), more comorbidities (OR ≯ 3.6; P ≤ .005), and more non-antiretroviral therapy medications (OR ≯ 3.5; P ≤ .01) were associated with lower function. Current CD4 <200 cells/µL was more likely among low-function (11%) than high-function (2%) persons on FFP (P = .04); other HIV-related characteristics were not significantly different (P > .05) between functional categories on any instrument. Conclusions: Moderate functional impairment is common among middle-aged HIV-infected persons, with similar frequencies of impairment detected by 3 instruments. Reduction in comorbid disease, increased physical activity, and improved pain symptom management could reduce functional impairment among persons aging with HIV-infection.HIV Clinical Trials 13(6):324-34. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This retrospective cohort study examined electronic medical records of HIV-positive patients in California (N = 7,834) to find the prevalence of any psychiatric condition and the associations between several factors and the likelihood of these disorders. Approximately 53 % of the patients in this study had a documented psychiatric condition, including 23 % who had a mood disorder, 19 % who had a substance-related disorder, and 16 % who had an anxiety disorder. After controlling for potential confounders, significant positive associations (p < 0.001) were found between female gender and the presence of any mood disorder (adjusted odds ratio [95 % confidence interval, 95 %CI] = 1.58 [1.26-1.99]) or anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.54 [1.18-2.02]) and between homosexual orientation and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 1.33 [1.15-1.55]), mood disorder (AOR = 1.71 [1.42-2.07]), or anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.41 [1.22-1.88]). There were also significant negative associations between African-American race and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 0.68 [0.60-0.77]), mood disorder (AOR = 0.74 [0.64-0.86]), anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.43 [0.36-0.52]), or substance-related disorder (AOR = 0.78 [0.67-0.91]) and between state/federal insurance and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 0.70 [0.62-0.79]), mood disorder (AOR = 0.71 [0.62-0.80]), or anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.77 [0.66-0.89]).AIDS and Behavior 12/2012; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To identify risk and protective factors associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life, after controlling for key background characteristics, in a population of older gay and bisexual men living with HIV disease. Previous research examining quality of life among persons living with HIV rarely includes older adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: Survey responses from 226 gay and bisexual men aged 50 and older, and living with HIV disease, which were part of the Caring and Aging with Pride study, were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models. RESULTS: Findings reveal that comorbidity, limitations in activities, and victimization are significant risk factors for decreased physical and mental health-related quality of life. Stigma and HIV progression did not contribute to the overall outcome variables in multivariate models. Social support and self-efficacy serve as protective factors although social support was only significant with mental health-related quality of life. IMPLICATIONS: Comorbidity, functional limitations, and lifetime victimization are risks to quality of life among older gay and bisexual men with HIV disease. Self-efficacy and social support represent intrapersonal and interpersonal resources that can be enhanced through interventions to improve health-related quality of life.The Gerontologist 01/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor