Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-infected and uninfected patients: results from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT HIV clinical care now involves prevention and treatment of age-associated comorbidity. Although physical function is an established correlate to comorbidity in older adults without HIV infection, its role in aging of HIV-infected adults is not well understood. To investigate this question we conducted cross-sectional analyses including linear regression models of physical function in 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 uninfected patients enrolled 2002-2006 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-8-site (VACS-8). Baseline self-reported physical function correlated with the Short Form-12 physical subscale (ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001), and predicted survival. Across the age groups decline in physical function per year was greater in HIV-infected patients (β(coef) -0.25, p < 0.001) compared to uninfected patients (β(coef) -0.08, p = 0.03). This difference, although statistically significant (p < 0.01), was small. Function in the average 50-year old HIV-infected subject was equivalent to the average 51.5-year-old uninfected subject. History of cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor of poor function, but the effect was similar across groups. Chronic pulmonary disease had a differential effect on function by HIV status (Δβ(coef) -3.5, p = 0.03). A 50-year-old HIV-infected subject with chronic pulmonary disease had the equivalent level of function as a 68.1-year-old uninfected subject with chronic pulmonary disease. We conclude that age-associated comorbidity affects physical function in HIV-infected patients, and may modify the effect of aging. Longitudinal research with markers of disease severity is needed to investigate loss of physical function with aging, and to develop age-specific HIV care guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of anal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients-as in the general population-is primarily with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and abdominoperineal resection of residual or recurrent primary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of residual primary disease and local recurrence as well as the outcome of salvage surgery after CRT for anal carcinoma in HIV-positive individuals. We retrospectively studied HIV-positive anal carcinoma patients treated between February 1989 and November 2012 in a specialist London unit. Extent of residual primary disease, local recurrence after CRT, postoperative complications, and survival after salvage surgery were evaluated. Complete response was experienced in 44 of 53 (83 %) of HIV patients treated with CRT for anal carcinoma. One patient (2.3 %) developed local recurrence. Nine patients (eight residual primary disease after CRT and one local recurrence) underwent salvage surgery after CRT. There were no perioperative deaths, and perioperative CD4 counts were sustained. Complications occurred in five patients (55 %). Median interval to complete perineal healing was 4 months (range 2-11 months), and median hospital stay was 29 days. Survival (median 16 months) was 25 % at 2 years from salvage surgery. Results in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suggest that loss of HIV sensitivity to HAART can be avoided, but that there is increased postoperative morbidity that may be related to HIV disease. Survival was comparable to that for salvage therapy after optimal CRT in non-HIV anal carcinoma patients.Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic lung disease has been associated with greater impairment in self-reported physical function in HIV patients. We sought to study this association using objective measures of physical or pulmonary function. Baseline data from the Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) study, a multicenter observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected Veterans. We assessed the association between clinical, laboratory, and pulmonary function measures on six-minute walk test (6-MWT). Multivariable linear regression models were generated to identify factors associated with 6-MWT performance. 340 participants completed 6-MWT (mean age 55 years), with 68% black race, 94% men and 62% current smokers. Overall, 180 (53%) were HIV-infected and 63 (19%) had spirometry-defined COPD. In a multivariable model, age, current smoking, and obesity (BMI>30) were independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance, but HIV infection was not; there was a significant interaction between HIV and chronic cough, such that distance walked among HIV-infected participants with chronic cough was 51.76 meters less (p=0.04) compared to those without cough or HIV. Among HIV-infected participants, the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, % predicted), to a greater extent than total lung capacity or diffusion capacity, attenuated the association with chronic cough; decreased FEV1 was independently associated with lower 6-MWT performance in those with HIV. Older age, current smoking and airflow limitation were important determinants of 6-MWT performance in the HIV-infected participants. These findings suggest potential interventions to improve physical function may include early management of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to develop evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. We conducted a knowledge synthesis, combining research evidence specific to HIV, rehabilitation and ageing, with evidence on rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults with HIV. We included highly relevant HIV-specific research addressing rehabilitation and ageing (stream A) and high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for common comorbidities experienced by older adults ageing with HIV (stream B). We extracted and synthesised relevant data from the evidence to draft evidence-informed recommendations for rehabilitation. Draft recommendations were refined based on people living with HIV (PLHIV) and clinician experience, values and preferences, reviewed by an interprofessional team for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) (quality) rating and revision and then circulated to PLHIV and clinicians for external endorsement and final refinement. We then devised overarching recommendations to broadly guide rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. This synthesis yielded 8 overarching and 52 specific recommendations. Thirty-six specific recommendations were derived from 108 moderate-level or high-level research articles (meta-analyses and systematic reviews) that described the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions for comorbidities that may be experienced by older adults with HIV. Recommendations addressed rehabilitation interventions across eight health conditions: bone and joint disorders, cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, mental health challenges, cognitive impairments, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. Sixteen specific recommendations were derived from 42 research articles specific to rehabilitation with older adults with HIV. The quality of evidence from which these recommendations were derived was either low or very low, consisting primarily of narrative reviews or descriptive studies with small sample sizes. Recommendations addressed approaches to rehabilitation assessment and interventions, and contextual factors to consider for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV. These evidence-informed recommendations provide a guide for rehabilitation with older adults living with HIV.BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(5):e004692. · 1.58 Impact Factor