Association of age and comorbidity with physical function in HIV-infected and uninfected patients: results from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT HIV clinical care now involves prevention and treatment of age-associated comorbidity. Although physical function is an established correlate to comorbidity in older adults without HIV infection, its role in aging of HIV-infected adults is not well understood. To investigate this question we conducted cross-sectional analyses including linear regression models of physical function in 3227 HIV-infected and 3240 uninfected patients enrolled 2002-2006 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-8-site (VACS-8). Baseline self-reported physical function correlated with the Short Form-12 physical subscale (ρ = 0.74, p < 0.001), and predicted survival. Across the age groups decline in physical function per year was greater in HIV-infected patients (β(coef) -0.25, p < 0.001) compared to uninfected patients (β(coef) -0.08, p = 0.03). This difference, although statistically significant (p < 0.01), was small. Function in the average 50-year old HIV-infected subject was equivalent to the average 51.5-year-old uninfected subject. History of cardiovascular disease was a significant predictor of poor function, but the effect was similar across groups. Chronic pulmonary disease had a differential effect on function by HIV status (Δβ(coef) -3.5, p = 0.03). A 50-year-old HIV-infected subject with chronic pulmonary disease had the equivalent level of function as a 68.1-year-old uninfected subject with chronic pulmonary disease. We conclude that age-associated comorbidity affects physical function in HIV-infected patients, and may modify the effect of aging. Longitudinal research with markers of disease severity is needed to investigate loss of physical function with aging, and to develop age-specific HIV care guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: The life expectancy for HIV-positive individuals has improved over time due to increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Yet, as the HIV-positive population ages, their risk of developing cancers also increases. Studies of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) among elderly HIV-infected persons are quite limited. We examined the age patterns of KS incidence and an association between age and KS risk in a US cohort of 3458 HIV-infected men, the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson distribution was used to calculate incidence rates and respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to examine the association between age and KS risk. There were 534 incident KS cases with a total follow-up time of 25,134 person-years. The overall KS incidence rate was 2.13 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 1.95-2.32) (Non-HAART users-ever: 5.57 per 100 person-years [95% CI: 5.09-6.10]; HAART users-ever: 0.39 per 100 person-years [95% CI: 0.31-0.51]). Overall, KS frequency and incidence declined with age, even in the oldest age group (ptrend < 0.0001). However, among non-HAART users-ever, the oldest age group had the highest incidence rate ratio compared to younger individuals [15.01, 95% CI: 6.12-44.22]). While the incidence of KS decreased with age, older HIV-infected persons who do not receive HAART are still at increased risk of KS. As KS remains an important malignancy among HIV-infected persons, earlier HIV diagnoses and HAART initiation, particularly in older HIV-infected persons is warranted.Cancer Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.1002/cam4.312
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ABSTRACT: Background: With the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has significantly prolonged. An increasing number of HIV-infected patients are aging and concurrent use of medications are not uncommon for management of metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases related to aging and prolonged exposure to cART. Methods: We reviewed medical records of all HIV-infected patients aged 40 years or older who had been followed at a university hospital for HIV care in Taiwan between January and December 2013. A standardized case record form was used to collect information on demographics and clinical characteristics, comorbidity, cART, and concurrent medications. Results: During the study period, 610 patients aged 40 to 49 years (mean, 44.1) and 310 aged 50 years or older (mean, 58.8) sought HIV care at this hospital. Compared with patients aged 40 to 49 years, those aged 50 years or older were significantly more likely to be female (15.9% vs 3.8%); to have received cART (97.7% vs 94.8%) and a lower plasma HIV RNA load (1.6 vs 1.7 log(10) copies/ml); and to have diabetes mellitus (18.4% vs 4.6%), hypertension (31.0% vs 10.8%), hyperlipidemia (29.4% vs 11.6%), coronary artery disease (6.8% vs 0.5%), and an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (11.5% vs 2.7%); and were significantly less likely to have syphilis. Other than HIV infection, patients aged 50 years or older were more likely to have been receiving two or more concurrent medications than those aged 40 to 49 years (22.9% vs 6.4%). Conclusions: Our findings show a significant proportion of the HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older have multiple comorbidities that may increase the risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. Issues of poly-pharmacy among the HIV-infected patients who are aging should be addressed to ensure adherence and minimize drug-drug interactions.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104945. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104945 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Physical function impairments are seen among aging, HIV-infected persons on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The impact of physical function impairments on health-related quality of life (QoL) during ART is unknown. Design: This was a cross-sectional study including 359 HIV-infected patients, aged 45-65 years, on ART for more than 6 months. Methods: Patients completed the SF-36 QoL questionnaire, 400-m walk, 5-time chair rise, and grip strength. HIV-associated mortality risk was calculated using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index. Physical function, physical activity (>500 versus <= 500 kcal/week), and VACS scores were used to estimate QoL in multivariable linear regression. Results: For every 1 m/s increase in gait speed, we saw an estimated 11.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.4, 15.2] point increase in the physical function scale with smaller differences across all subscales. For every 1 rise/s faster chair rise pace, we saw an estimated 16.0 (95% CI 9.1, 22.9) point increase in the physical function scale with smaller differences across all subscales. SF-36 scores were between 2.8 and 5.7 points higher among more physically active compared to less active patients. A 1 kg increase in grip strength was associated with a 0.2 (95% CI 0.01, 0.3) higher mental health score, but there were no differences in other subscales. VACS scores did not improve the model. Conclusions: Faster gait speed and chair rise time, and greater physical activity were associated with greater QoL, independent of HIV-related mortality risk. Targeted exercise programs to increase physical activity and improve speed and power should be evaluated as interventions to improve QoL during ART. (C) 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & WilkinsAIDS (London, England) 07/2014; 28(13). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000384 · 6.56 Impact Factor