A novel transnasal transsphenoidal speculum: a design for both microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery

Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.15). 02/2011; 114(5):1380-5. DOI: 10.3171/2010.11.JNS101167
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the last several years minimally invasive surgical approaches to the sella turcica and parasellar regions have undergone significant change. The transsphenoidal approach to this region has evolved from a sublabial transnasal, to transnasal, to pure endonasal approaches with the increasing popularity of endoscopic over microscopic techniques. Endoscopic and microscopic techniques individually or in combination have their own unique advantages, and the preference of one over the other awaits further technological refinements and surgical experience. In parallel with this evolution in techniques for transsphenoidal surgery, the authors designed an adaptable versatile speculum for the endonasal/transnasal transsphenoidal approach to the sella turcica and parasellar regions that can be used equally effectively with a microscope or an endoscope. The development of this instrument and its unique features are described, and its initial clinical use is summarized. This transnasal transsphenoidal speculum has interchangeable blades, unique blade angulations, and independent blade opening mechanisms and allows safe, optimal exposure in all patients regardless of the size and anatomical aberrations of individual nasal and endonasal regions. An attached endoscope carrier further allows it to be used interchangeably with microscopic or endoscopic techniques without having to remove the speculum; likewise, a single surgeon can use both hands without need of an assistant. A forehead headrest component adds further stabilization. This device has been used successfully in 90 transsphenoidal procedures.

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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory disturbances could be observed following transsphenoidal pituitary surgeries. To our knowledge, no previous comparative studies on olfactory functions after transsphenoidal endoscopic and microscopic approaches have been performed. Prospective study comparing olfactory functions between endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Twenty-five patients operated on with the endoscopic approach and 25 patients operated on with the microscopic transsphenoidal approach have been evaluated. The Smell Diskettes Olfaction Test was used during the preoperative period, 1 month after the operation, and 6 months after the operation. In addition, the relationship between intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the pituitary and postoperative synechiae formation with olfaction system was evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Friedman test, Mann-Whitney test, and Chi-Square test. In the endoscopic group, there were two hyposmic patients and no anosmic patients. In the microscopic group, there were 13 hyposmic patients and five anosmic patients. The data was statistically different between both groups (P <0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was observed in nine patients in the endoscopic group and in 10 patients in the microscopic group. There was no statistically significant difference between cerebrospinal fluid leakage and olfactory disturbances in both groups (P >0.05). Synechia was observed in nine patients in the microscopic group and in only one patient in the endoscopic group. There was a statistically significant difference between the presence of synechia and olfactory disturbances (P <0.05). This is the first study to seek the difference between the endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal approaches on the olfactory system during pituitary surgery. The obtained results indicate that an endoscopic approach seems to be more advantageous than a microscopic approach for protecting olfactory system and function. 4. Laryngoscope, 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: To compare endoscopic and neuronavigation-assisted microscopic removal of hypophyseal adenoma in order to detect those variables statistically associated to clinical failures of each technique. Forty-eight patients (27 males and 21 females) with hypophyseal adenoma were treated with microscopy (6 patients) or endoscopic removal (42 patients). Surgery was performed via endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach. Correlations between tumor dimensions (standard and macro-tumor) or surgical techniques (endoscopy vs. microscopic technique) vs. residual tumor, surgical complication (i.e. rhinoliquorrea) and persisting visual deficit, were evaluated. No statistical significance was detected among the studied variables. On the basis of reported data, both techniques are safe if the surgeon is well trained. Neuronavigation applied during endonasal trans-sphenoidal microscopic surgery can precisely define the localization and removal of lesions in the sella region with respect to the margins of important anatomical structures in the neighborhood, decreasing the rate of complications.
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical benefit of combined intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) and endoscopy for transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection has not been completely characterized. This study assessed the impact of microscopy, endoscopy, and/or iMRI on progression-free survival, extent of resection status (gross-, near-, and sub-total resection), and operative complications. Retrospective analyses were performed on 446 transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgeries at a single institution between 1998 and 2012. Multivariate analyses were used to control for baseline characteristics, differences during extent of resection status, and progression-free survival analysis. Additional surgery was performed after iMRI in 56/156 cases (35.9 %), which led to increased extent of resection status in 15/156 cases (9.6 %). Multivariate ordinal logistic regression revealed no increase in extent of resection status following iMRI or endoscopy alone; however, combining these modalities increased extent of resection status (odds ratio 2.05, 95 % CI 1.21-3.46) compared to conventional transsphenoidal microsurgery. Multivariate Cox regression revealed that reduced extent of resection status shortened progression-free survival for near- versus gross-total resection [hazard ratio (HR) 2.87, 95 % CI 1.24-6.65] and sub- versus near-total resection (HR 2.10; 95 % CI 1.00-4.40). Complication comparisons between microscopy, endoscopy, and iMRI revealed increased perioperative deaths for endoscopy versus microscopy (4/209 and 0/237, respectively), but this difference was non-significant considering multiple post hoc comparisons (Fisher exact, p = 0.24). Combined use of endoscopy and iMRI increased pituitary adenoma extent of resection status compared to conventional transsphenoidal microsurgery, and increased extent of resection status was associated with longer progression-free survival. Treatment modality combination did not significantly impact complication rate.
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