Article

Disaster medicine training in family medicine: a review of the evidence.

Center for Family Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.
Family medicine (Impact Factor: 0.85). 01/2011; 43(1):13-20.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT When disasters strike, local physicians are at the front lines of the response in their community. Curriculum guidelines have been developed to aid in preparation of family medicine residents to fulfill this role. Disaster responsiveness has recently been added to the Residency Review Committee Program Requirements in Community Medicine with little family medicine literature support. In this article, the evidence in support of disaster training in a variety of settings is reviewed. Published evidence of improved educational or patient-oriented outcomes as a result of disaster training in general, or of specific educational modalities, is weak. As disaster preparedness and disaster training continue to be implemented, the authors call for increased outcome-based research in disaster response training.

Full-text

Available from: Thomas F Gavagan, Jun 11, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
75 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Riot control agents are highly potent sensory irritants of relatively low toxicity that produce dose and time-dependent acute site-specific toxicity. These compounds have been referred to as transient incapacitating agents or as lacrimators, and in common parlance they are known as "tear gases". These compounds interact pharmacologically with sensory nerve receptors associated with mucosal surfaces and the skin at the site of contamination, resulting in localized discomfort or pain with associated reflexes. This biological response, e.g. ocular irritation, results in pain in the eye and excess reflex lacrimation and blepharospasm. Riot control agents have both civil and military applications and have been classified as either military chemicals or chemical warfare agents. Non-lethal or less lethal weapons have become increasingly popular for law enforcement use when confronting dangerous, combative individuals in the field, include riot control agents. Many incapacitating agents were developed during the Cold War. Oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray, an extracted resin from Capsicum pepper plants, was first developed in the 1970s as an alternative to CS (2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile) and CN (chloroacetophenone) agents. Most recently, a synthetic form of capsaicin, PAVA (pelargonic acid vanillylamide), gained popularity as a defensive aerosol in the early 1990s. Chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of PAVA are discussed in this paper.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Education and training are key elements of disaster management. Despite national and international educational programs in disaster management, there is no standardized curriculum available to guide the European Union (EU) member states. European- based Disaster Training Curriculum (DITAC), a multiple university-based project financially supported by the EU, is charged with developing a holistic and highly-structured curriculum and courses for responders and crisis managers at a strategic and tactical level. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively assess the prevailing preferences and characteristics of disaster management educational and training initiatives (ETIs) at a postgraduate level that currently exist in the EU countries. An Internet-based qualitative search was conducted in 2012 to identify and analyze the current training programs in disaster management. The course characteristics were evaluated for curriculum, teaching methods, modality of delivery, target groups, and funding. The literature search identified 140 ETIs, the majority (78%) located in United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Master level degrees were the primary certificates granted to graduates. Face-to-face education was the most common teaching method (84%). Approximately 80% of the training initiatives offered multi- and cross-disciplinary disaster management content. A competency-based approach to curriculum content was present in 61% of the programs. Emergency responders at the tactical level were the main target group. Almost all programs were self-funded. Although ETIs currently exist, they are not broadly available in all 27 EU countries. Also, the curricula do not cover all key elements of disaster management in a standardized and competency-based structure. This study has identified the need to develop a standardized competency-based educational and training program for all European countries that will ensure the practice and policies that meet both the standards of care and the broader expectations for professionalization of the disaster and crisis workforce. Ingrassia PL , Foletti M , Djalali A , Scarone P , Ragazzoni L , Della Corte F , Kaptan K , Lupescu O , Arculeo C , von Arnim G , Friedl T , Ashkenazi M , Heselmann D , Hreckovski B , Khorrram-Manesh A , Komadina R , Lechner K , Patru C , Burkle FM Jr. , Fisher P . Education and training initiatives for crisis management in the European Union: a web-based analysis of available programs. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(2):1-12 .
    Prehospital and disaster medicine: the official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the World Association for Emergency and Disaster Medicine in association with the Acute Care Foundation 03/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1049023X14000235
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disasters impact the mental health of entire communities through destruction and physical displacement. There is growing recognition of the need for disaster mental health competencies. Professional organizations such as the AAFP and the ASPH recommend engaging with communities in equal partnership for their recovery. This systematic study was undertaken for the purpose of reviewing published disaster medicine competencies to determine if core competencies included community cooperation and collaboration. A search of Internet databases was conducted using major keywords "disaster" and "competencies". Articles eligible contained laundry lists of basic core competency curriculum beyond emergency response. Data were qualitatively analyzed to identify types of competencies, and the degree of community cooperation. A total of 12 studies were reviewed. Only one study listed competencies specifying community cooperation, although others refer indirectly to it. Findings suggest competency-based education programs could do more to educate future disaster health professionals about the importance of community collaboration.
    Community Mental Health Journal 06/2014; 51(2). DOI:10.1007/s10597-014-9751-6 · 1.03 Impact Factor