The kinetic mechanism of mouse myosin VIIA.
ABSTRACT Myosin VIIa is crucial in hearing and visual processes. We examined the kinetic and association properties of the baculovirus expressed, truncated mouse myosin VIIa construct containing the head, all 5IQ motifs and the putative coiled coil domain (myosin VIIa-5IQ). The construct appears to be monomeric as determined by analytical ultracentrifugation experiments, and only single headed molecules were detected by negative stain electron microscopy. The relatively high basal steady-state rate of 0.18 s(-1) is activated by actin only by ∼3.5-fold resulting in a V(max) of 0.7 s(-1) and a K(ATPase) of 11.5 μM. There is no single rate-limiting step of the ATP hydrolysis cycle. The ATP hydrolysis step (M·T M·D·P) is slow (12 s(-1)) and the equilibrium constant (K(H)) of 1 suggests significant reversal of hydrolysis. In the presence of actin ADP dissociates with a rate constant of 1.2 s(-1). Phosphate dissociation is relatively fast (>12 s(-1)), but the maximal rate could not be experimentally obtained at actin concentrations ≤ 50 μM because of the weak binding of the myosin VIIa-ADP-P(i) complex to actin. At higher actin concentrations the rate of attached hydrolysis (0.4 s(-1)) becomes significant and partially rate-limiting. Our findings suggest that the myosin VIIa is a "slow", monomeric molecular motor with a duty ratio of 0.6.
- SourceAvailable from: Dietmar J Manstein[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myosin-7a participates in auditory and visual processes. Defects in MYO7A, the gene encoding the myosin-7a heavy chain, are causative for Usher syndrome 1B, the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in humans. In the present study, we performed a detailed kinetic and functional characterization of the isolated human myosin-7a motor domain to elucidate the details of chemomechanical coupling and the regulation of motor function. A rate-limiting, slow ADP release step causes long lifetimes of strong actin-binding intermediates and results in a high duty ratio. Moreover, our results reveal a Mg(2+)-sensitive regulatory mechanism tuning the kinetic and mechanical properties of the myosin-7a motor domain. We obtained direct evidence that changes in the concentration of free Mg(2+) ions affect the motor properties of human myosin-7a using an in vitro motility assay system. Our results suggest that in a cellular environment, compartment-specific fluctuations in free Mg(2+) ions can mediate the conditional switching of myosin-7a between cargo moving and tension bearing modes.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 06/2011; 69(2):299-311. DOI:10.1007/s00018-011-0749-8 · 5.86 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Usher syndrome 1 (USH1) is the most common and severe form of hereditary loss of hearing and vision. Genetic, physiological, and cell biological studies, together with recent structural investigations, have not only uncovered the physiological functions of the five USH1 proteins but also provided mechanistic explanations for the hearing and visual deficiencies in humans caused by USH1 mutations. This review focuses on the structural basis of the USH1 protein complex organization.Physiology 02/2012; 27(1):25-42. DOI:10.1152/physiol.00037.2011 · 5.65 Impact Factor
Article: Myosins in cell junctions[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions.09/2012; 2(5). DOI:10.4161/bioa.21791