Dietary antigens, epitope recognition, and immune complex formation in recent onset psychosis and long-term schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Peptides derived from dietary antigens such as bovine milk caseins are opioid receptor ligands and contribute to schizophrenia-associated hyperpeptidemia and hyperpeptiduria. The IgG antibody response to bovine caseins is increased in schizophrenia and recent onset psychosis. To identify specific casein peptide sequences that are antigenic in patients vs controls, we measured serum IgG binding to 10-26 amino acid long linear epitopes of casein with immunoassays for the entire group (n=95 recent onset psychosis; n=103 long-term schizophrenia; n=65 control), and with peptide microarray libraries in a casein-sensitive subset (n=14 recent onset; n=10 control). In the entire group, we compared anti-casein peptide IgG vs anti-whole casein IgG and evaluated whether peptide immune complexes contributed to IgG binding results. Anti-whole casein IgG levels correlated with anti-casein peptide IgG in controls only (R2=0.17-0.25, p≤0.002-0.03). In recent onset psychosis, IgG binding to linear peptide sequences was significantly decreased 3.8-5.7-fold compared to controls in immunoassays (OR 0.18-0.26, p≤0.0001-0.001). In peptide microarrays, recent onset patients again showed significantly reduced IgG binding and fewer epitopes than controls (p≤0.00001-0.05). Anti-peptide IgG levels did not differ between patients with long-term schizophrenia and controls. Finally, significantly more recent onset individuals had casein peptide-IgG immune complexes than controls (OR 4.96, p≤0.001). These findings suggest an immunological specificity that differs in early vs later stages of neuropsychiatric diseases and an IgG saturation by casein-derived peptides that may in part explain the reduced IgG binding to small linear epitopes observed in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Hyperpeptiduria and opioid excess have been re-ported in schizophrenia. According to Prof. Dr. L. Lindström, Sweden opioids may explain the patho-physiology of this syndrome. Therefore it is critical to elucidate the presence and nature of opioids in schi-zophrenia and diagnostic sub groups. First morning urine from untreated schizoaffective patients (ICD-10: F 25.1) was separated on HPLC and peaks that elute where different opioid standards appear, freeze dried, re-dissolved in methanol/water (50/50) and 10 mM formic acid. Mass spectrometry and MS/MS or frag-mentation mass spectrometry was performed. We found fragmentation pattern of beta-casomorphin 1 -3 and 1 -4 (bovine) identical to synthetic standards from Bachem. The aggregation tendency of peptides was much in evidence. The reported exorphins were found in the urine from 8 of 12 untreated schizoaffec-tive patients.Open Journal of Psychiatry 01/2012; 02(03).
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ABSTRACT: Increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to dietary antigens can be associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and autoimmunity. The underlying processes contributing to these adverse reactions remain largely unknown, and it is likely that genetic factors play a role. Here, we estimate heritability and attempt to localize genetic factors influencing IgG antibody levels against food-derived antigens using an integrative genomics approach. IgG antibody levels were determined by ELISA in >1,300 Mexican Americans for the following food antigens: wheat gliadin; bovine casein; and two forms of bovine serum albumin (BSA-a and BSA-b). Pedigree-based variance components methods were used to estimate additive genetic heritability (h(2) ), perform genome-wide association analyses, and identify transcriptional signatures (based on 19,858 transcripts from peripheral blood lymphocytes). Heritability estimates were significant for all traits (0.15-0.53), and shared environment (based on shared residency among study participants) was significant for casein (0.09) and BSA-a (0.33). Genome-wide significant evidence of association was obtained only for antibody to gliadin (P = 8.57 × 10(-8) ), mapping to the human leukocyte antigen II region, with HLA-DRA and BTNL2 as the best candidate genes. Lack of association of known celiac disease risk alleles HLA-DQ2.5 and -DQ8 with antigliadin antibodies in the studied population suggests a separate genetic etiology. Significant transcriptional signatures were found for all IgG levels except BSA-b. These results demonstrate that individual genetic differences contribute to food antigen antibody measures in this population. Further investigations may elucidate the underlying immunological processes involved.Genetic Epidemiology 07/2014; 38(5):439-46. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with unknown aetiology. Both candidate gene and genome-wide association (GWA) studies suggest that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system may play a part in development of the illness, but the causal HLA variant(s) remain(s) unclear. Previous studies showed that the DRB1*0101 and DRB1*13 alleles might be associated with a high risk of schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to test their association with the disease by genotyping seven DRB1-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a British population. The results showed that, of the previously reported variants that were associated with schizophrenia, the DRB1*1303 allele was the only one marginally associated with a protective effect on the illness in our sample set (χ (2) = 4.138, P = 0.042, odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.66). Interestingly, a significant association was found for rs424232 (χ (2) = 9.404, P = 0.002, OR = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.54-0.88), which is a tag SNP for the DRB1*1303 allele and located near to the NOTCH4 gene that is a schizophrenia susceptibility locus confirmed by GWA studies. Analysis with the Haploview program demonstrated that rs424232 was in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs3130297 and rs3131296 present in the NOTCH4 locus. While we have failed to confirm association of the candidate alleles in the DRB1 gene with a high risk of schizophrenia, the present work suggests that the association signal detected in the HLA class II locus may extend a relatively long distance, and more work is needed in order to identify the true causal variants within this region or nearby.Immunogenetics 09/2012; · 2.89 Impact Factor