Nutritional and toxicological aspects of seafood consumption--an integrated exposure and risk assessment of methylmercury and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
ABSTRACT Seafood consumption is associated with both risks and beneficial effects to human health. Consequently, an integrated exposure assessment of intake of toxic and nutritious agents in seafood is of importance prior to determination of dietary advisories. We have developed a probabilistic model for the estimation of simultaneous intake of methylmercury (MeHg) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3 PUFAs) from seafood, to estimate the population proportion at risk for exceeding tolerable MeHg intake and not reaching adequate intake of PUFAs. Seafood consumption data was collected among women of childbearing age using a food frequency questionnaire. A database of mercury and fatty acids concentration in seafood was constructed. A Latin Hypercube simulation was used to calculate the intake of MeHg and LC n-3 PUFAs. Eleven percent of the population exceeded the MeHg reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg bw/day, whereas only 44% reached an adequate PUFA intake. A small proportion (3.7%) exceeded the MeHg reference dose while at the same time did not reach an adequate PUFA intake. Furthermore, we simulated two scenarios in which seafood is consumed according to a general recommendation of three servings per week, whereof one serving of oily seafood. The first scenario included seafood with typically low MeHg concentrations (mean 0.056 and 0.027 μg MeHg/g fish in lean and oily species, respectively), and the second included seafood typically high in MeHg concentrations (mean 0.50 and 0.26 μg MeHg/g fish in lean and oily species, respectively). In the "high"scenario, almost 100% of the population exceeded the reference dose, whereas the corresponding proportion was only 5% in the "low" scenario. Overall, the results stress the importance of communicating species specific seafood consumption advisories for women of childbearing age in general and for pregnant women in particular, while at the same time encourage them to consume more seafood.
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ABSTRACT: A seafood frequency questionnaire (SFQ) broken down in more than 42 items with 8-week coverage was interview-administered to 278 adults aged 19-82 years (167 women, 98 in the reproductive age 19-45 years, and 111 men), resident on the Italian Mediterranean shore and frequent buyer at local fish markets. Methylmercury (MeHg) intake on individual basis was estimated for a selected occurrence equal to the median value + Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) in each seafood species reported (conservative scenario). MeHg occurrence was derived from an extensive seafood database referred to years 2009-2011. Accounting for an average body weight of 62.2 kg, 24.6% of women resulted overexposed with respect to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) for MeHg of 1.3 μg/kg bw, with a mean of 0.92 μg/kg bw. In the vulnerable group aged 19-45 years, 29.6% exceeded the TWI. Rather than the amount of seafood consumed, the seafood choice appears to be the main determinant of the MeHg intake. Risk awareness was reported in the 49% of SFQs. Uncertainties related to such estimates from questionnaires are discussed, in order to give adequate health recommendations without compromising seafood consumption in the Mediterranean region.Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 03/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potentially beneficial effects of fish consumption on stroke may be modified by major food contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in particular are proposed to play a role in the etiology of stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and stroke risk with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids and fish consumption. The prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort was examined. It was comprised of 34,591 women free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline in 1997 and followed up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of stroke were ascertained through register-linkage. During 12 years of follow-up (397,309 person-years), there were 2,015 incident cases of total stroke (1,532 ischemic strokes, 216 intracerebral hemorrhages, 94 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 173 unspecified strokes). Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR), controlled for known stroke risk factors and fish consumption, were 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 2.17) for total stroke, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.17) for ischemic stroke, and 2.80 (95% CI, 1.42 to 5.55) for hemorrhagic stroke for women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 288 ng/day) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 101 ng/day). Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased stroke risk in women, especially hemorrhagic stroke. The results provide important information regarding the risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption, particularly for cerebrovascular disease prevention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditional mode of preservation of fatty fish in most countries is either by smoking or pickling. Mackerel is a commonly used fatty fish in the preparation of “jaadi”, a locally prepared pickled fish product in Sri Lanka produced especially in the glut season. The aim of this study was to assess the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage time during 18 wk in traditionally preserved mackerel. The most common COPs were quantified and identified by GC and GC-MS, respectively. Total cholesterol and COPs ranged from 20 to 113 mg/100 g sample and from 0.2 to 3.8 mg/100 g sample, respectively. The content of COPs increased up to 6 wk and gradually decreased during the storage. The formation of COPs is low until week 4 of storage of jaadi. Between week 4 and 6 of storage the formation of COPs reaches its maximum level and then decreases during storage. Regular consumption of this pickled fish can be a source of considerable amounts of COPs in the diet of the local population in Sri Lanka. Practical applications: Cleaned mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) covered with sun-dried salt powder and a paste of sun-dried Garcinia (Garcinia cambogia) fruit locally known as “goraka” is used to produce jaadi in Sri Lanka. Garcinia is a traditional commodity used for fish preservation and cooking, probably due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The results of this preliminary study could be useful in the future to increase the stability of preserved mackerel.European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 06/2012; 114(6). · 2.03 Impact Factor