Recombinant West Nile virus envelope protein E and domain III expressed in insect larvae protects mice against West Nile disease
ABSTRACT In this study, West Nile virus (WNV) envelope (rE) protein and its domain III (rDIII) were efficiently expressed in a cost-effective system based on insect larvae as non-fermentative living biofactories. Mice immunized with the partially purified rE or rDIII elicited high antibodies titers that neutralized viral infectivity in cell culture and in suckling mice. All vaccinated animals were fully protected when challenged with neurovirulent WNV NY99. Passive transfer of protective antibodies from immunized mothers to their offspring occurred both by transplacental and lactation routes. These results indicate that the insect-derived antigens tested may constitute potential vaccine candidates to be further evaluated.
SourceAvailable from: Miguel A. Martín-Acebes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. WNV causes sporadic disease outbreaks in horses and humans, which may result in febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Until recently, its medical and veterinary health concern was relatively low; however, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences in humans and horses have lately increased in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. Surprisingly, its incidence in human and animal health is very different in Central and South America, and the reasons for it are not yet understood. Even though great advances have been obtained lately regarding WNV infection, and although efficient equine vaccines are available, no specific treatments or vaccines for human use are on the market. This review updates the most recent investigations in different aspects of WNV life cycle: molecular virology, transmission dynamics, host range, clinical presentations, epidemiology, ecology, diagnosis, control, and prevention, and highlights some aspects that certainly require further research.04/2012; 1(2):51-70. DOI:10.5501/wjv.v1.i2.51
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ABSTRACT: We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). Using various combinations of vector modules of a deconstructed viral vector expression system, DIII was produced in three subcellular compartments in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression. DIII expressed at much higher levels when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) than that targeted to the chloroplast or the cytosol, with accumulation level up to 73 μ g DIII per gram of leaf fresh weight within 4 days after infiltration. Plant ER-derived DIII was soluble and readily purified to > 95% homogeneity without the time-consuming process of denaturing and refolding. Further analysis revealed that plant-produced DIII was processed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-DIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope. Furthermore, subcutaneous immunization of mice with 5 and 25 μ g of purified DIII elicited a potent systemic response. This study provided the proof of principle for rapidly producing immunogenic vaccine candidates against WNV in plants with low cost and scalability.04/2014; 2014:952865. DOI:10.1155/2014/952865
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ABSTRACT: West Nile Virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can infect and cause disease in mammals including humans. Our study aimed at developing a WNV vectored vaccine based on a fish Novirhabdovirus, the Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV). VHSV replicates at temperatures lower than 20°C and is naturally inactivated at higher temperatures. A reverse genetics system has recently been developed in our laboratory for VHSV allowing the addition of genes in the viral genome and the recovery of the respective recombinant viruses (rVHSV). In this study, we have generated rVHSV vectors bearing the complete WNV envelope gene (EWNV) (rVHSV-EWNV) or fragments encoding E subdomains (either domain III alone or domain III fused to domain II) (rVHSV-DIIIWNV and rVHSV-DII-DIIIWNV, respectively) in the VHSV genome between the N and P cistrons. With the objective to enhance the targeting of the EWNV protein or EWNV-derived domains to the surface of VHSV virions, Novirhadovirus G-derived signal peptide and transmembrane domain (SPG and TMG) were fused to EWNV at its amino and carboxy termini, respectively. By Western-blot analysis, electron microscopy observations or inoculation experiments in mice, we demonstrated that both the EWNV and the DIIIWNV could be expressed at the viral surface of rVHSV upon addition of SPG. Every constructs expressing EWNV fused to SPG protected 40 to 50% of BALB/cJ mice against WNV lethal challenge and specifically rVHSV-SPGEWNV induced a neutralizing antibody response that correlated with protection. Surprisingly, rVHSV expressing EWNV-derived domain III or II and III were unable to protect mice against WNV challenge, although these domains were highly incorporated in the virion and expressed at the viral surface. In this study we demonstrated that a heterologous glycoprotein and non membrane-anchored protein, can be efficiently expressed at the surface of rVHSV making this approach attractive to develop new vaccines against various pathogens.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91766. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091766 · 3.53 Impact Factor