Proanthocyanidin-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. exerts antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 by inhibition of viral adsorption and penetration.
ABSTRACT Extracts from the aerial parts of the South African resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. have been used traditionally against infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin diseases. A polyphenol-enriched extract was investigated for potential antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and adenovirus, and the underlying mode of action was to be studied.
Antiviral effects of an acetone-water extract (MF) from Myrothamnus flabellifolia on HSV-1 and adenovirus type 3 were tested in infected Vero cells by plaque reduction assay, MTT test and immunofluorescence. The influence of the extract on the HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein D was shown by Western blot. Organotypic full thickness skin models consisting of multilayer skin equivalents were used for the investigation of MF effects on HSV-1 replication.
MF exhibited strong antiviral activity against HSV-1. The HSV-1-specific inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was determined as 0.4 μg/mL and the cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) against Vero cells as 50 μg/mL. A selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of approximately 120 was calculated when MF was added to the virus inoculum for 1h at 37°C prior to infection. The replication of adenovirus 3 was not affected by MF. MF abolished virus entry into the host cell by blocking viral attachment to the cell surface. When added after attachment at a concentration of >6 μg/mL, the extract also inhibited penetration of HSV-1 into the host cell. Polyphenolic compounds from MF directly interacted with viral particles, leading to the oligomerisation of envelope proteins as demonstrated for the essential viral glycoprotein D (gD). Using organotypic full thickness tissue cultures, it was shown that treatment of HSV-1 infected cultures with the MF resulted in reduced viral spread.
A polyphenol-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia strongly acts against HSV-1 by blocking viral entry into the cells.
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ABSTRACT: A tetrazolium salt has been used to develop a quantitative colorimetric assay for mammalian cell survival and proliferation. The assay detects living, but not dead cells and the signal generated is dependent on the degree of activation of the cells. This method can therefore be used to measure cytotoxicity, proliferation or activation. The results can be read on a multiwell scanning spectrophotometer (ELISA reader) and show a high degree of precision. No washing steps are used in the assay. The main advantages of the colorimetric assay are its rapidity and precision, and the lack of any radioisotope. We have used the assay to measure proliferative lymphokines, mitogen stimulations and complement-mediated lysis.Journal of Immunological Methods 01/1984; 65(1-2):55-63. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A crude hydroalcoholic extract from Hamamelis virginiana bark was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) with a cut-off limit of 3 kDa to obtain a higher and a lower molecular weight fraction. Characterisation of the fractions was attempted with TLC, HPLC, acidic hydrolysis, and chromatography over Sephadex LH-20. The UF-concentrate was shown to consist mainly of oligomeric to polymeric proanthocyanidins (PA). This fraction was found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In addition, the UV-concentrate displayed radical scavenging properties, inhibited alpha-glucosidase as well as human leukocyte elastase (HLE), and exhibited strong antiphlogistic effects in the croton oil ear edema test in the mouse. With the exception of the antioxidant potential and the inhibition of HLE-action the lower molecular fraction possessed weaker activities and contained mainly hamamelitannin, catechin, and further, unidentified constituents.Planta Medica 07/1996; 62(3):241-5. · 2.35 Impact Factor
Article: Herpes simplex viruses.Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/1998; 26(3):541-53; quiz 554-5. · 9.37 Impact Factor