A comparison of the epidemiology and clinical presentation of seasonal influenza A and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Guatemala.

Division of Global Disease Detection and Emergency Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 12/2010; 5(12):e15826. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015826
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A new influenza A (H1N1) virus was first found in April 2009 and proceeded to cause a global pandemic. We compare the epidemiology and clinical presentation of seasonal influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) using a prospective surveillance system for acute respiratory disease in Guatemala.
Patients admitted to two public hospitals in Guatemala in 2008-2009 who met a pneumonia case definition, and ambulatory patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) at 10 ambulatory clinics were invited to participate. Data were collected through patient interview, chart abstraction and standardized physical and radiological exams. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from all enrolled patients for laboratory diagnosis of influenza A virus infection with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We identified 1,744 eligible, hospitalized pneumonia patients, enrolled 1,666 (96%) and tested samples from 1,601 (96%); 138 (9%) had influenza A virus infection. Surveillance for ILI found 899 eligible patients, enrolled 801 (89%) and tested samples from 793 (99%); influenza A virus infection was identified in 246 (31%). The age distribution of hospitalized pneumonia patients was similar between seasonal H1N1 and pH1N1 (P = 0.21); the proportion of pneumonia patients <1 year old with seasonal H1N1 (39%) and pH1N1 (37%) were similar (P = 0.42). The clinical presentation of pH1N1 and seasonal influenza A was similar for both hospitalized pneumonia and ILI patients. Although signs of severity (admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation and death) were higher among cases of pH1N1 than seasonal H1N1, none of the differences was statistically significant.
Small sample sizes may limit the power of this study to find significant differences between seasonal influenza A and pH1N1. In Guatemala, influenza, whether seasonal or pH1N1, appears to cause severe disease mainly in infants; targeted vaccination of children should be considered.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI), but little is known about how it compares with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Central America.Objectives In this study, we describe hospitalized cases of HMPV- and RSV-ARI in Guatemala.Methods We conducted surveillance at three hospitals (November 2007–December 2012) and tested nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for HMPV and RSV using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We calculated incidence rates, and compared the epidemiology and outcomes of HMPV-positive versus RSV-positive and RSV-HMPV-negative cases.ResultsWe enrolled and tested specimens from 6288 ARI cases; 596 (9%) were HMPV-positive and 1485 (24%) were RSV-positive. We observed a seasonal pattern of RSV but not HMPV. The proportion HMPV-positive was low (3%) and RSV-positive high (41%) for age <1 month, whereas these proportions were similar (~20%) by age 2 years. The annual incidence of hospitalized HMPV-ARI was 102/100 000 children aged <5 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 75–178], 2·6/100 000 persons aged 5–17 years (95%CI: 1·2–5·0), and 2·6/100 000 persons aged ≥18 years (95%CI: 1·5–4·9). Among children aged <5 years, HMPV-positive cases were less severe than HMPV-RSV-negative cases after adjustment for confounders [odds ratio (OR) for intensive care = 0·63, 95% CI 0·47–0·84]; OR for death = 0·46, 95% CI 0·23–0·92).Conclusions Human metapneumovirus is a substantial contributor to ARI hospitalization in Guatemala, but HMPV hospitalizations are less frequent than RSV and, in young children, less severe than other etiologies. Preventive interventions should take into account the wide variation in incidence by age and unpredictable timing of incidence peaks.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 04/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1111/irv.12251 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Influenza virus is one of the major viral pathogens causing pediatric acute respiratory infection (ARI). The spread of pandemic influenza A (A(H1N1)pdm09) in 2009 around the globe had a huge impact on global health. Objective To investigate the impact of A(H1N1)pdm09 on pediatric ARI in Vietnam. Study designAn ongoing population-based prospective surveillance in central Vietnam was used. All children aged <15 years residing in Nha Trang city, enrolled to the ARI surveillance in Khanh Hoa General Hospital, from February 2007 through March 2011 were studied. Clinical data and nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected. Influenza A was detected and genotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing. ResultsAmong enrolled 2736 hospitalized ARI cases, 354 (13%) were positive for influenza A. Genotyping results revealed that seasonal H3N2 and H1N1 (sea-H1N1) viruses were cocirculating before A(H1N1)pdm09 appeared in July 2009. The A(H1N1)pdm09 replaced the sea-H1N1 after the pandemic. The majority of influenza A cases (90%) were aged <5 years with incidence rate of 537 (387–775) per 100 000 population. Annual incidence rates of hospitalized influenza cases for pre-, initial and post-pandemic periods among children aged <5 year were 474, 452, and 387 per 100 000, respectively. Children with A(H1N1)pdm09 were elder, visited the hospital earlier, less frequently had severe signs, and were less frequently associated with viral coinfection compared with seasonal influenza cases. Conclusions The A(H1N1)pdm09 did not increase the influenza annual hospitalization incidence or disease severity compared with seasonal influenza among pediatric ARI cases in central Vietnam.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 03/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1111/irv.12244 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2013; 138(6):962-8. · 1.66 Impact Factor

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