c-Maf-dependent growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a CD14(hi) subpopulation of monocyte-derived macrophages.

Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center, Tyler, TX 75708, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 02/2011; 186(3):1638-45. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1003146
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macrophages are a major component of the innate immune response, comprising the first line of defense against various intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this report, we studied the factors that regulate growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv in subpopulations of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). In healthy donors, M. tuberculosis H37Rv grew 5.6-fold more rapidly in CD14(hi) MDMs compared with that in CD14(lo)CD16(+) MDMs. Compared with CD14(lo)CD16(+) cells, M. tuberculosis H37Rv-stimulated CD14(hi) monocytes produced more IL-10 and had increased mRNA expression for c-Maf, a transcription factor that upregulates IL-10 gene expression. c-Maf small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited IL-10 production and growth of M. tuberculosis in CD14(hi) cells. Compared with CD14(lo)CD16(+) monocytes, M. tuberculosis H37Rv-stimulated CD14(hi) cells had increased expression of 22 genes whose promoters contained a c-Maf binding site, including hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). c-Maf siRNA inhibited HAS1 expression in M. tuberculosis-stimulated CD14(hi) monocytes, and HAS1 siRNA inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis in CD14(hi) MDMs. M. tuberculosis H37Rv upregulated expression of HAS1 protein and its product, hyaluronan, in CD14(hi) MDMs. We conclude that M. tuberculosis grows more rapidly in CD14(hi) than in CD14(lo)CD16(+) MDMs because CD14(hi) cells have increased expression of c-Maf, which increases production of two key factors (hyaluronan and IL-10) that promote growth of M. tuberculosis.

Download full-text


Available from: Sudipto Saha, Mar 06, 2014
1 Follower
27 Reads
  • Source
    • "g/ml). CD14+ monocytes were isolated with magnetic beads conjugated to anti-CD14 (Miltenyi Biotec) as described before [78]. To isolate CD14+ cells, first CD56+ cells were removed from CD14-depleted PBMCs with magnetic beads conjugated to anti-CD56 and then subjected to positive immunomagnetic selection. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A number of earlier studies reported the occurrence of thrombotic complications, particularly disseminated intravascular coagulation and deep vein thrombosis, in tuberculosis (TB) patients. The aberrant expression of tissue factor (TF), the primary activator of coagulation cascade, is known to be responsible for thrombotic disorders in many diseases including bacterial infections. Further, expression of TF by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage is also shown to contribute to the development and progression of local and systemic inflammatory reactions. In the present study, we have investigated whether Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection induces TF expression in macrophages, and various host and pathogenic factors responsible for TF expression. We have tested the effect of live virulent Mtb H37Rv, gamma-irradiated Mtb H37Rv (γ-Mtb) and various components derived from Mtb H37Rv on TF expression in macrophages. The data presented in the manuscript show that both live virulent Mtb and γ-Mtb treatments markedly increased TF activity in macrophages, predominantly in the CD14(+) macrophages. Detailed studies using γ-Mtb showed that the increased TF activity in macrophages following Mtb treatment is the result of TF transcriptional activation. The signaling pathways of TF induction by Mtb appears to be distinct from that of LPS-induced TF expression. Mtb-mediated TF expression is dependent on cooperation of CD14/TLR2/TLR4 and probably yet another unknown receptor/cofactor. Mtb cell wall core components, mycolyl arabinogalactan peptidoglycan (mAGP), phosphatidylinositol mannoside-6 (PIM6) and lipomannan (LM) were identified as factors responsible for induction of TF in the order of mAGP>PIM6>LM. A direct contact between bacteria and macrophage and not Mtb-released soluble factors is critical for TF induction by Mtb. In summary, our data show that Mtb induces TF expression in macrophages and Mtb signaling pathways that elicit TF induction require cooperation of multiple receptors, co-receptors/co-factors including Toll-like receptors. The importance of TF in granuloma formation and containment of Mtb is discussed.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45700. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045700 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality in global cattle populations. Macrophages are among the first cell types to encounter M. bovis following exposure and the response elicited by these cells is pivotal in determining the outcome of infection. Here, a functional genomics approach was undertaken to investigate global gene expression profiles in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) purified from seven age-matched non-related females, in response to in vitro challenge with M. bovis (multiplicity of infection 2:1). Total cellular RNA was extracted from non-challenged control and M. bovis-challenged MDM for all animals at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-challenge and prepared for global gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array. Comparison of M. bovis-challenged MDM gene expression profiles with those from the non-challenged MDM controls at each time point identified 3,064 differentially expressed genes 2 hours post-challenge, with 4,451 and 5,267 differentially expressed genes detected at the 6 hour and 24 hour time points, respectively (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.05). Notably, the number of downregulated genes exceeded the number of upregulated genes in the M. bovis-challenged MDM across all time points; however, the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes was markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Systems analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in: (1) the inflammatory response; (2) cell signalling pathways, including Toll-like receptors and intracellular pathogen recognition receptors; and (3) apoptosis. The increased number of downregulated genes is consistent with previous studies showing that M. bovis infection is associated with the repression of host gene expression. The results also support roles for MyD88-independent signalling and intracellular PRRs in mediating the host response to M. bovis.
    PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e32034. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032034 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The occurrence of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection is found to be accelerated in people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the mechanism by which mycobacterial protein(s) induces HIV-1 LTR trans-activation is not clearly understood. We show here that the M. tuberculosis proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) protein Rv1168c (PPE17) can augment transcription from HIV-1 LTR in monocyte/macrophage cells. Rv1168c interacts specifically with Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) resulting in downstream activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) resulting in HIV-1 LTR trans-activation. Another PPE protein, Rv1196 (PPE18), was also found to interact with TLR2 but had no effect on HIV-1 LTR trans-activation because of its inability to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway. In silico docking analyses and mutation experiments have revealed that the N-terminal domain of Rv1168c specifically interacts with LRR motifs 15-20 of TLR2, and this site of interaction is different from that of Rv1196 protein (LRR motifs 11-15), indicating that the site of interaction on TLR2 dictates the downstream signaling events leading to activation of NF-κB. This information may help in understanding the mechanism of pathogenesis of HIV-1 during M. tuberculosis co-infection.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2012; 287(20):16930-46. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.327825 · 4.57 Impact Factor
Show more