Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and T2DM in a case-control association study of the Bahraini population.
ABSTRACT Bahrain has one of the highest incidence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) as a complication was noticed in some patients while absent in others. This interesting observation raises the role of certain genetic risk factors for the development of DN. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was found to be associated with T2DM. While some patients have predisposition to DN in the population, others have negative association. The present case-control association study was designed to investigate the association of ACE I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients in Bahrain especially in those who developed DN. A total of 360 T2DM patients (110 with DN and 250 without DN) and 360 healthy (non-diabetic) age-matched subjects were recruited for this study for comparison. The presence (insertion)/absence (deletion) (I/D) polymorphism of a 287-bp Alu1 element inside intron 16 of the ACE gene was investigated using PCR-gel electrophoresis. The results show that the distribution of the homozygote DD genotype of the ACE gene was high among Bahraini T2DM patients compared to the healthy non-diabetic subjects. In addition, the distribution of the deletion (D) allele was high among Bahraini T2DM patients with DN when compared to the healthy non-diabetic subjects. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of ACE I/D allele and genotypes between DN patients when compared to those T2DM patients without DN. The results obtained in this study are in closely agreement with some previous reports which show a strong association of ACE polymorphism with T2DM patients, yet not a risk factor for development of DN.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) gene polymorphism and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). A total of 80 patients with retinal vein occlusion who was admitted to the Eye Department of Kartal Training and Research Hospital between 2008 and 2011, and 80 subjects were enrolled in this retrospective case-control study. Patients who experienced RVO within one week to six months of study enrolment were included, and those with coronary artery diseases, prior myocardial infarction history and coagulation disturbances were excluded from the study. The diagnosis was made by ophthalmoscopic fundus examination and fluorescein angiography. The ACE gene I/D polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction, and the ACE gene was classified into three types: I/I, I/D and D/D. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ACE D/D genotype (p = 0.035), diabetes-mellitus (p = 0.019) and hypertension (p = 0.001) were found to be independent predictive factors for RVO. The results of the present study reveal that ACE D/D polymorphism is an independent predictive factor for RVO. However, one cannot definitely conclude that ACE gene polymorphism is a risk factor for retinal vein occlusion.Thrombosis Journal 01/2014; 12:17. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Associations between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been extensively studied, with most studies reporting that individuals with the D allele have a higher risk. Although some factors, such as ethnicity, may moderate the association between ACE I/D polymorphisms and CKD risk, gender-dependent effects on the CKD risk remain controversial. This study investigated the gender-dependent effects of ACE I/D polymorphisms on CKD risk. PubMed, the Cochrane library, and EMBASE were searched for studies published before January 2013. Cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies analyzing ACE I/D polymorphisms and CKD were included. They were required to match the following criteria: age >18 years, absence of rare diseases, and Asian or Caucasian ethnicity. The effect of carrying the D allele on CKD risk was assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression using random-effects models. ETHNICITY [ODDS RATIO (OR): 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.42] and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.04-2.32) had significant moderate effects on the association between ACE I/D polymorphisms and CKD risk, but they were not significant in the diabetic nephropathy subgroup. Males had higher OR for the association between ACE I/D polymorphisms and CKD risk than females in Asians but not Caucasians, regardless of adjustment for hypertension (p<0.05). In subgroup analyses, this result was significant in the nondiabetic nephropathy group. Compared with the I allele, the D allele had the highest risk (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 1.84-7.65) for CKD in hypertensive Asian males. The ACE I/D polymorphisms may incur the highest risk for increasing CKD in hypertensive Asian males.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87604. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) is diabetic nephropathy (DN). Angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE) gene was the first candidate gene of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for predisposition to DN. Objective. Investigation whether the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism is associated with Egyptian type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) with nephropathy. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between variants of ACE I/D gene polymorphism and serum ACE level and the progression of nephropathy in Egyptian T2DM patients. Methods. A total of 85 T2DM patients (45 with nephropathy and 40 without nephropathy) besides 45 healthy (non-diabetic) age-matched subjects were recruited in this study for comparison. The (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was investigated using PCR and serum ACE levels were determined using ELISA. Results. The frequency of ACE DD genotype and D allele was significantly higher in DN patients when compared to control healthy subjects and diabetic patients without nephropathy. In addition our results showed a significant association between DD genotype of ACE gene and elevated serum ACE level. Conclusion. The present study showing a strong association between the D allele and/or DD homozygous of ACE gene and diabetic patients developed nephropathy. In addition, individuals with D allele have higher levels of serum ACE compared to those having I allele. ACE gene polymorphism and serum ACE level may serve as a susceptibility biomarker for nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.Journal of Advances in Chemistry. 05/2014; 9(3):2023-2032.