Observation and prediction of recurrent human translocations mediated by NAHR between nonhomologous chromosomes.

Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Genome Research (Impact Factor: 13.85). 01/2011; 21(1):33-46. DOI: 10.1101/gr.111609.110
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Four unrelated families with the same unbalanced translocation der(4)t(4;11)(p16.2;p15.4) were analyzed. Both of the breakpoint regions in 4p16.2 and 11p15.4 were narrowed to large ∼359-kb and ∼215-kb low-copy repeat (LCR) clusters, respectively, by aCGH and SNP array analyses. DNA sequencing enabled mapping the breakpoints of one translocation to 24 bp within interchromosomal paralogous LCRs of ∼130 kb in length and 94.7% DNA sequence identity located in olfactory receptor gene clusters, indicating nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) as the mechanism for translocation formation. To investigate the potential involvement of interchromosomal LCRs in recurrent chromosomal translocation formation, we performed computational genome-wide analyses and identified 1143 interchromosomal LCR substrate pairs, >5 kb in size and sharing >94% sequence identity that can potentially mediate chromosomal translocations. Additional evidence for interchromosomal NAHR mediated translocation formation was provided by sequencing the breakpoints of another recurrent translocation, der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31). The NAHR sites were mapped within 55 bp in ∼7.8-kb paralogous subunits of 95.3% sequence identity located in the ∼579-kb (chr 8) and ∼287-kb (chr 12) LCR clusters. We demonstrate that NAHR mediates recurrent constitutional translocations t(4;11) and t(8;12) and potentially many other interchromosomal translocations throughout the human genome. Furthermore, we provide a computationally determined genome-wide "recurrent translocation map."

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    Molecular Cytogenetics 11/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0086-3 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), occurring between low-copy repeats (LCRs) >10 kb in size and sharing >97% DNA sequence identity, is responsible for the majority of recurrent genomic rearrangements in the human genome. Recent studies have shown that transposable elements (TEs) can also mediate recurrent deletions and translocations, indicating the features of substrates that mediate NAHR may be significantly less stringent than previously believed. Using >4 kb length and >95% sequence identity criteria, we analyzed of the genome-wide distribution of long interspersed element (LINE) retrotransposon and their potential to mediate NAHR. We identified 17 005 directly oriented LINE pairs located <10 Mbp from each other as potential NAHR substrates, placing 82.8% of the human genome at risk of LINE-LINE-mediated instability. Cross-referencing these regions with CNVs in the Baylor College of Medicine clinical chromosomal microarray database of 36 285 patients, we identified 516 CNVs potentially mediated by LINEs. Using long-range PCR of five different genomic regions in a total of 44 patients, we confirmed that the CNV breakpoints in each patient map within the LINE elements. To additionally assess the scale of LINE-LINE/NAHR phenomenon in the human genome, we tested DNA samples from six healthy individuals on a custom aCGH microarray targeting LINE elements predicted to mediate CNVs and identified 25 LINE-LINE rearrangements. Our data indicate that LINE-LINE-mediated NAHR is widespread and under-recognized, and is an important mechanism of structural rearrangement contributing to human genomic variability. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; 43(4). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1394 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amplifications or deletions of genome segments, known as copy number variants (CNVs), have been associated with many diseases. Read depth analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an essential method of detecting CNVs. However, genome read coverage is frequently distorted by various biases of NGS platforms, which reduce predictive capabilities of existing approaches. Additionally, the use of read depth tools has been somewhat hindered by imprecise breakpoint identification. We developed GROM-RD, an algorithm that analyzes multiple biases in read coverage to detect CNVs in NGS data. We found non-uniform variance across distinct GC regions after using existing GC bias correction methods and developed a novel approach to normalize such variance. Although complex and repetitive genome segments complicate CNV detection, GROM-RD adjusts for repeat bias and uses a two-pipeline masking approach to detect CNVs in complex and repetitive segments while improving sensitivity in less complicated regions. To overcome a typical weakness of RD methods, GROM-RD employs a CNV search using size-varying overlapping windows to improve breakpoint resolution. We compared our method to two widely used programs based on read depth methods, CNVnator and RDXplorer, and observed improved CNV detection and breakpoint accuracy for GROM-RD. GROM-RD is available at
    01/2015; 3:e836. DOI:10.7717/peerj.836

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