Article

Observation and prediction of recurrent human translocations mediated by NAHR between nonhomologous chromosomes.

Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Genome Research (Impact Factor: 13.85). 01/2011; 21(1):33-46. DOI: 10.1101/gr.111609.110
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Four unrelated families with the same unbalanced translocation der(4)t(4;11)(p16.2;p15.4) were analyzed. Both of the breakpoint regions in 4p16.2 and 11p15.4 were narrowed to large ∼359-kb and ∼215-kb low-copy repeat (LCR) clusters, respectively, by aCGH and SNP array analyses. DNA sequencing enabled mapping the breakpoints of one translocation to 24 bp within interchromosomal paralogous LCRs of ∼130 kb in length and 94.7% DNA sequence identity located in olfactory receptor gene clusters, indicating nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) as the mechanism for translocation formation. To investigate the potential involvement of interchromosomal LCRs in recurrent chromosomal translocation formation, we performed computational genome-wide analyses and identified 1143 interchromosomal LCR substrate pairs, >5 kb in size and sharing >94% sequence identity that can potentially mediate chromosomal translocations. Additional evidence for interchromosomal NAHR mediated translocation formation was provided by sequencing the breakpoints of another recurrent translocation, der(8)t(8;12)(p23.1;p13.31). The NAHR sites were mapped within 55 bp in ∼7.8-kb paralogous subunits of 95.3% sequence identity located in the ∼579-kb (chr 8) and ∼287-kb (chr 12) LCR clusters. We demonstrate that NAHR mediates recurrent constitutional translocations t(4;11) and t(8;12) and potentially many other interchromosomal translocations throughout the human genome. Furthermore, we provide a computationally determined genome-wide "recurrent translocation map."

0 Bookmarks
 · 
240 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), occurring between low-copy repeats (LCRs) >10 kb in size and sharing >97% DNA sequence identity, is responsible for the majority of recurrent genomic rearrangements in the human genome. Recent studies have shown that transposable elements (TEs) can also mediate recurrent deletions and translocations, indicating the features of substrates that mediate NAHR may be significantly less stringent than previously believed. Using >4 kb length and >95% sequence identity criteria, we analyzed of the genome-wide distribution of long interspersed element (LINE) retrotransposon and their potential to mediate NAHR. We identified 17 005 directly oriented LINE pairs located <10 Mbp from each other as potential NAHR substrates, placing 82.8% of the human genome at risk of LINE-LINE-mediated instability. Cross-referencing these regions with CNVs in the Baylor College of Medicine clinical chromosomal microarray database of 36 285 patients, we identified 516 CNVs potentially mediated by LINEs. Using long-range PCR of five different genomic regions in a total of 44 patients, we confirmed that the CNV breakpoints in each patient map within the LINE elements. To additionally assess the scale of LINE-LINE/NAHR phenomenon in the human genome, we tested DNA samples from six healthy individuals on a custom aCGH microarray targeting LINE elements predicted to mediate CNVs and identified 25 LINE-LINE rearrangements. Our data indicate that LINE-LINE-mediated NAHR is widespread and under-recognized, and is an important mechanism of structural rearrangement contributing to human genomic variability. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1394 · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundDiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) is the most common deletion syndrome in humans. Low copy repeats flanking the 22q11.2 region confer a substrate for non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events leading to rearrangements. This study sought to identify DGS/VCFS fathers with increased susceptibility to deletions and duplications at the 22q11.2 region in spermatozoa and to assess the particular contribution of intra-chromatid and/or inter-chromatid NAHR. Semen samples from nine DGS/VCFS fathers were analyzed by triple-color FISH using a probe combination that discriminated between normal, deleted and duplicated genotypes. Microsatellite analysis were performed in the parents and the affected children to determine the parental origin of the deleted chromosome 22.ResultsA significant increase in 22q11.2 deletions was observed in the sperm of two out of nine DGS/VCFS fathers (odds ratio 2.03-fold, P?<?0.01), and in both cases the deletion in the offspring was transmitted by the father. Patients with significant increases in sperm anomalies presented a disturbed deletion:duplication 1:1 ratio (P?<?0.01).ConclusionsAltogether, results support that intra-chromatid NAHR is the mechanism responsible for the higher rate of sperm deletions, which is directly related to the transmission of the deleted chromosome 22 to offspring. Accordingly, the screening of sperm anomalies in the 22q11.2 region should be taken into account in the genetic counseling of DGS/VCFS families.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 11/2014; DOI:10.1186/s13039-014-0086-3 · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human sex chromosomes differ in sequence, except for the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR) at the terminus of the short and the long arms, denoted as PAR1 and PAR2. The boundary between PAR1 and the unique X and Y sequences was established during the divergence of the great apes. During a copy number variation screen, we noted a paternally inherited chromosome X duplication in 15 independent families. Subsequent genomic analysis demonstrated that an insertional translocation of X chromosomal sequence into theMa Y chromosome generates an extended PAR. The insertion is generated by non-allelic homologous recombination between a 548 bp LTR6B repeat within the Y chromosome PAR1 and a second LTR6B repeat located 105 kb from the PAR boundary on the X chromosome. The identification of the reciprocal deletion on the X chromosome in one family and the occurrence of the variant in different chromosome Y haplogroups demonstrate this is a recurrent genomic rearrangement in the human population. This finding represents a novel mechanism shaping sex chromosomal evolution.
    PLoS Genetics 11/2014; 10(11):e1004578. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004578 · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
46 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014