Multimodality imaging in the surgical treatment of children with nonlesional epilepsy
ABSTRACT To evaluate the diagnostic value of individual noninvasive presurgical modalities and to study their role in surgical management of nonlesional pediatric epilepsy patients.
We retrospectively studied 14 children (3-18 years) with nonlesional intractable focal epilepsy. Clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, localizing features on 3 presurgical diagnostic tests (subtraction peri-ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI [SISCOM], statistical parametric mapping [SPM] analysis of [18F] FDG-PET, magnetoencephalography [MEG]), and intracranial EEG (iEEG) were reviewed. The localization of each individual test was determined for lobar location by visual inspection. Concordance of localization between each test and iEEG was scored as follows: 2=lobar concordance; 1=hemispheric concordance; 0=discordance or nonlocalization. Total concordance score in each patient was measured by the summation of concordance scores for all 3 tests.
Seven (50%) of 14 patients were seizure-free for at least 12 months after surgery. One (7%) had only rare seizures and 6 (43%) had persistent seizures. MEG (79%, 11/14) and SISCOM (79%, 11/14) showed greater lobar concordance with iEEG than SPM-PET (13%, 3/14) (p<0.05). SPM-PET provided hemispheric lateralization (71%, 10/14) more often than lobar localization. Total concordance score tended to be greater for seizure-free patients (4.7) than for non-seizure-free patients (3.9).
Our data suggest that MEG and SISCOM are better tools for lobar localization than SPM analysis of FDG-PET in children with nonlesional epilepsy. A multimodality approach may improve surgical outcome as well as selection of surgical candidates in patients without MRI abnormalities.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Object The authors conducted a study to correlate histopathological features, MRI findings, and postsurgical outcomes in children with cortical dysplasia (CD) by performing a novel resection site-specific evaluation. Methods The study cohort comprised 43 children with intractable epilepsy and CD. The MR image review was blinded to pathology but with knowledge of the resection location. An MRI score (range 0-7) was calculated for each resection region based on the number of imaging features of CD and was classified as "lesional" or "nonlesional" according to all imaging features. Outcome was determined using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) scale. The determination of pathological CD type was based on the ILAE 2011 consensus classification system, and the cortical gliosis pattern was assessed on GFAP staining. Results There were 89 resection regions (50 ILAE Type I, 29 Type IIa, and 10 Type IIb). Eleven (25.6%) of 43 children had more than one type of CD. The authors observed MRI abnormalities in 63% of patients, characteristic enough to direct resection (lesional) in 42%. Most MRI features, MRI score ≥ 3, and lesional abnormalities were more common in patients with Type II CD. Increased cortical signal was more common in those with Type IIb (70%) rather than Type IIa (17.2%) CD (p = 0.004). A good outcome was demonstrated in 39% of children with Type I CD and 72% of those with Type II CD (61% in Type IIa and 100% in Type IIb) (p = 0.03). A lesional MRI abnormality and an MRI score greater than 3 correlated with good outcome in 78% and 90% of patients, respectively (p < 0.03). Diffuse cortical gliosis was more prevalent in Type II CD and in resection regions exhibiting MRI abnormalities. Complete surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality was associated with a better postoperative outcome. Conclusions This study provides a detailed correlation of MRI findings, neuropathological features, and outcomes in children with intractable epilepsy by using a novel resection site-specific evaluation. Because 25% of the patients had multiple CD subtypes, a regional analysis approach was mandated. Those children with lesional MRI abnormalities, Type II CD, and surgical exclusion of the MRI abnormality had better outcomes. Type II CD is more detectable by MRI than other types, partly because of the greater extent of associated gliosis in Type II. Although MRI findings were correlated with the pathological CD type and outcome in this study, the majority of patients (58%) did not have MRI findings that could direct surgical therapy, underscoring the need for improved MRI techniques for detection and for the continued use of multimodal evaluation methods in patient selection.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 05/2014; DOI:10.3171/2014.3.PEDS13560 · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives Metabolic imaging studies, such as positron emission tomography (PET), allow for an assessment of physiologic functioning of the brain, and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)–PET is now a commonly used technique in presurgical epilepsy evaluations. Focal interictal decreases in glucose consumption are often but inconsistently concordant with the ictal onset area, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The current study tests the hypothesis that areas of glucose hypometabolism, determined by FDG-PET, are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with medically intractable epilepsy associated with isolated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).Methods Measures of electron transport chain (ETC) functioning and mitochondrial abnormalities (ETC complex biochemistry, protein kinase B subtype 1 (Akt1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) were assessed in surgical resection specimens that had hypometabolic abnormalities and those that were normal on FDG-PET. Determination of FDG-PET abnormalities was based on coregistration of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) results with postsurgical images.ResultsTwenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age at the time of surgery 10.5 ± 4.4 years), with pathologically confirmed FCD, were included in this retrospective review. Complex IV function was found to be significantly reduced in areas of hypometabolism (p = 0.014), whereas there was a trend toward a significant reduction in complex II and III function in areas of hypometabolism (p = 0.08, p = 0.059, respectively). These decreases were independent of cortical dysplasia severity (p = 0.321) and other clinical epilepsy measures.SignificanceThis study suggests an association between glucose hypometabolism and reduced mitochondrial complex IV functioning, which is independent of the degree of cortical dysplasia. This supports the role of cellular energy failure as a potential mechanism for intractable epilepsy.Epilepsia 07/2014; 55(9). DOI:10.1111/epi.12731 · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the value of a new multi-stage surgical procedure using bilateral intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) prior and post complete corpus callostomy (CC) for epileptogenic focus localization. Methods Thirty patients with drug-resistant epilepsy underwent bilateral iEEG monitoring to localize epileptogenic focus for surgical treatment. Among them, bisynchronous epileptogenic activities were found in 9 pediatric patients. These 9 patients then received complete CC and continued bilateral iEEG monitoring for further seizure localization. Final surgical treatment decisions were made based on the bilateral iEEG findings post complete CC. The entire multi-stage procedure was performed during the same hospital stay. We retrospectively studied the data from the 9 patients. Results Seizure onset was lateralized in 3 patients who later received functional hemispherectomy. In another 4 patients, seizure onset was localized, resulting in resective surgery. Bilateral multiple subpial transection was performed on 1 patient with identified bilateral independent seizure onset. One patient did not have seizures following complete CC leading to removal of electrodes without any further resection. Subsequent follow-up showed favorable outcome in all patients: seizure-free in 7, more than 90% reduction in 2. None of the patients experienced surgery related complications during the procedure and follow-up period. Conclusion The multi-stage surgical procedure utilizing iEEG monitoring with CC is a viable option for select patients with catastrophic non-localizing epilepsy. Further study is necessary to find the optimal selection criteria for use of this novel approach.Seizure 08/2014; 24. DOI:10.1016/j.seizure.2014.08.011 · 2.06 Impact Factor