Article

Construction and application for QTL analysis of a Restriction Site Associated DNA (RAD) linkage map in barley.

Crop and Soil Science Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 4.04). 01/2011; 12:4. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Linkage maps are an integral resource for dissection of complex genetic traits in plant and animal species. Canonical map construction follows a well-established workflow: an initial discovery phase where genetic markers are mined from a small pool of individuals, followed by genotyping of selected mapping populations using sets of marker panels. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, Restriction site Associated DNA (RAD), enables synchronous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery and genotyping using massively parallel sequencing. The objective of this research was to assess the utility of RAD markers for linkage map construction, employing barley as a model system. Using the published high density EST-based SNP map in the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population as a reference, we created a RAD map using a limited set of prior markers to establish linakge group identity, integrated the RAD and prior data, and used both maps for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL).
Using the RAD protocol in tandem with the Illumina sequence by synthesis platform, a total of 530 SNP markers were identified from initial scans of the OWB parental inbred lines--the "dominant" and "recessive" marker stocks--and scored in a 93 member doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. RAD sequence data from the structured population was converted into allele genotypes from which a genetic map was constructed. The assembled RAD-only map consists of 445 markers with an average interval length of 5 cM, while an integrated map includes 463 RAD loci and 2383 prior markers. Sequenced RAD markers are distributed across all seven chromosomes, with polymorphic loci emanating from both coding and noncoding regions in the Hordeum genome. Total map lengths are comparable and the order of common markers is identical in both maps. The same large-effect QTL for reproductive fitness traits were detected with both maps and the majority of these QTL were coincident with a dwarfing gene (ZEO) and the VRS1 gene, which determines the two-row and six-row germplasm groups of barley.
We demonstrate how sequenced RAD markers can be leveraged to produce high quality linkage maps for detection of single gene loci and QTLs. By combining SNP discovery and genotyping into parallel sequencing events, RAD markers should be a useful molecular breeding tool for a range of crop species. Expected improvements in cost and throughput of second and third-generation sequencing technologies will enable more powerful applications of the sequenced RAD marker system, including improvements in de novo genome assembly, development of ultra-high density genetic maps and association mapping.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
264 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the whole genome sequencing, genetic map provides an essential framework for accurate and efficient genome assembly and validation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a high-density genetic map using RAD-Seq (Restriction-site Associated DNA Sequencing) genotyping-by-sequencing (RAD-Seq GBS) and Illumina GoldenGate assays, and to examine the alignment of the current map with the kabuli chickpea genome assembly.
    BMC genomics. 08/2014; 15(1):708.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In the present study populations, representing different rounds of recombination were used for the analysis of phenotypic effects associated with the sdw1/denso locus. Other studies have mostly focused only on one type of population. Many different QTLs mapped at the same position as the sdw1/denso locus may indicate a pleiotropy of this gene or a tight linkage between genes conditioning quantitative traits. To date, results of studies have not unequivocally proven either of these two phenomena. Results Both breeding and molecular mapping experiments were undertaken to examine 200 single seed descent (SSD) and 60 doubled haploid (DH) lines obtained from the Maresi (with a semi-dwarfing gene) and Pomo cross combination. They were evaluated for the type of juvenile growth habit and certain agronomic traits were measured after harvesting. The estimates of mean values, standard errors and significance of effects were analyzed. In terms of the analyzed characteristics, the greatest variability was obtained for genotypes with the prostrate growth habit. Microsatellite markers (SSR) were also used to identify co-segregation with the sdw1/denso locus and Bmag0013, Bmag0877, Bmag0306b markers were linked the closest. A partial linkage map of chromosome 3H with the sdw1/denso semi-dwarfing gene was constructed and QTLs were identified. Conclusions Our experiments confirmed the impact of the semi-dwarfing gene on plant height, heading and flowering date both in SSD and DH populations, which may indicate pleiotropy. Moreover, a partial linkage between sdw1/denso locus and grain weight per spike and 1000-grain weight was found in the SSD population.
    Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 09/2014; · 0.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8 K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20 K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species ( M. micromalus ). A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs). Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7 K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8 K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8 K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8 K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e110377. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
43 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014