Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects—A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial

Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2011; 13(3):281-4. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2010.01332.x
Source: PubMed


The incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome correlates with the availability of magnesium (Mg). We studied the effect of oral Mg supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in normomagnesemic, overweight, insulin resistant, non-diabetic subjects. Subjects were tested for eligibility using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and subsequently randomized to receive either Mg-aspartate-hydrochloride (n = 27) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. As trial endpoints, several indices of insulin sensitivity, plasma glucose, serum insulin, blood pressure and lipid profile were determined. Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile did not show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimization of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes.

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Available from: Walter Golf, Jun 27, 2014
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    • "Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Mg deficiency might lead to a decrease in insulin mediated glucose uptake [34,36]. On the other hand, Mg supplementation prevented insulin resistance and also reduced the development of diabetes in animal models [37]. Some studies reported low level of Mg in the blood serum and an increased urinary excretion of Mg in the diabetics relative to their healthy control subjects [36]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Minerals are one of the components of food, though they are not synthesized in the body but they are essential for optimal health. Several essential metals are required for the proper functioning of many enzymes, transcriptional factors and proteins important in various biochemical pathways. For example Zn, Mg and Mn are cofactors of hundreds of enzymes, and Zn is involved in the synthesis and secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cells. Similarly, Cr enhances the insulin receptor activity on target tissues, especially in muscle cells. Insulin is the key hormone required to maintain the blood glucose level in normal range. In case of insulin deficiency or resistance, blood glucose concentration exceeds the upper limit of the normal range of 126 mg/dl. Persistent increase of blood serum glucose level leads to overt chronic hyperglycemia, which is a major clinical symptom of diabetes mellitus. Poor glycemic control and diabetes alters the levels of essential trace elements such as Zn, Mg, Mn, Cr, Fe etc. by increasing urinary excretion and their concomitant decrease in the blood. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss the important roles of essential trace elements in normal homeostasis and physiological functioning. Moreover, perturbation of essential trace elements is also discussed in perspective of type 2 diabetes pathobiology.
    Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders 01/2014; 13(1):16. DOI:10.1186/2251-6581-13-16
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    • "However, there are ongoing debates about whether magnesium supplementation has beneficial effects on metabolic parameters. Recent reports have shown that oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance even in non-diabetics (28), and improves borderline hypertension (29). Randomized controlled trials are warranted to provide additional evidence to settle this debate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong predictor of postpartum prediabetes and transition to overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although many reports indicate that low magnesium is correlated with deteriorated glucose tolerance, the association between postpartum serum magnesium level and the risk for T2DM in women with a history of GDM has not been evaluated. We analyzed postpartum serum magnesium levels and development of prediabetes and T2DM in women with prior GDM according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria using the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) GDM cohort. During a mean follow-up of 15.6±2.0 months after screening, 116 women were divided into three groups according to glucose tolerance status. Ultimately, eight patients (6.9%) were diagnosed with T2DM, 59 patients (50.9%) with prediabetes, and 49 patients (42.2%) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after follow-up. The T2DM group had the lowest serum magnesium level (0.65 [0.63-0.68] mM/L) in the postpartum period, but there was no significant difference between the prediabetes group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) and the NGT group (0.70 [0.65-0.70] mM/L) (P=0.073) Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that postpartum HOMA-IR was a significant predictor of both prediabetes and T2DM. Moreover, we found that postpartum serum magnesium level was also a possible predictor for T2DM development. Serum magnesium level in the postpartum period may be a possible predictor for T2DM development in women with a history of GDM.
    Journal of Korean medical science 01/2014; 29(1):84-9. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.84 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that higher magnesium intake may reduce diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We conducted a PubMed database search through January 2011 to identify prospective cohort studies of magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]). This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89). Sensitivity analyses restricted to studies with adjustment for cereal fiber intake yielded similar results. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. This meta-analysis provides further evidence supporting that magnesium intake is significantly inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner.
    Diabetes care 09/2011; 34(9):2116-22. DOI:10.2337/dc11-0518 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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