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Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy contributes to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography

Institute for Heart and Circulation Research, University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
Diabetic Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.06). 03/2011; 28(3):311-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03221.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, both diagnosed according to the current guidelines.
We evaluated 145 patients referred for an elective coronary angiography, 52 of whom had Type 2 diabetes and 48 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 45 subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed using autonomic function tests, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was verified by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 (28.8%) patients with Type 2 diabetes and in six (12.5%) individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The rates of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were 81 and 33% in patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P < 0.001). In the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy group (n = 21), early diastolic relaxation velocity (Em) was significantly reduced (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1 cm/s; P < 0.001) and the E/Em ratio was significantly higher (13.6 ± 4.6 vs. 10.3 ± 3.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) as compared with the group without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (n = 79). These findings remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, hypertension and HbA(1c) . A severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was observed in 33 and 15% of patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P = 0.001).
  Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with a higher prevalence and a more severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography. Because both cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, screening for patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may identify those at high risk.

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