Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy contributes to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography.
ABSTRACT Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, both diagnosed according to the current guidelines.
We evaluated 145 patients referred for an elective coronary angiography, 52 of whom had Type 2 diabetes and 48 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 45 subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed using autonomic function tests, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was verified by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 (28.8%) patients with Type 2 diabetes and in six (12.5%) individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The rates of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were 81 and 33% in patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P < 0.001). In the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy group (n = 21), early diastolic relaxation velocity (Em) was significantly reduced (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1 cm/s; P < 0.001) and the E/Em ratio was significantly higher (13.6 ± 4.6 vs. 10.3 ± 3.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) as compared with the group without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (n = 79). These findings remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, hypertension and HbA(1c) . A severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was observed in 33 and 15% of patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P = 0.001).
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with a higher prevalence and a more severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography. Because both cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, screening for patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may identify those at high risk.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To document the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio (SV/PP, an index of total arterial compliance) and its correlates in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) aged over 50 years whose peripheral neuropathy and silent myocardial ischemic (SMI) status were known. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 360 patients with T2DM aged ≥50 years, without cardiac history or symptom, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, dilatation and hypokinesia, were retrospectively enrolled. The SV/PP was calculated from echocardiographic left ventricular measurements and brachial blood pressure at rest. Peripheral neuropathy was defined as the presence of any two or more of the following: neuropathic symptoms, decreased distal sensation, or decreased or absent ankle reflexes. SMI was defined as an abnormal stress myocardial scintigraphy and/or stress echocardiography. A low SV/PP ratio (<0.53 ml/m²/mmHg, first tertile) was associated with age, creatinine clearance, 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides levels (p < 0.05-0.0001). In multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.1 [1.0-1.2], p < 0.01), triglycerides (OR 1.5 [1.2-2.0], p = 0.01) and peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.2 [1.2-3.9], p = 0.009) were independently associated with a low SV/PP. The patients with peripheral neuropathy had lower SV (p < 0.01) and higher PP (p < 0.05) than those without, and only lower SV after adjustment for age and nephropathy. Similar results were obtained in the patients with and without SMI. CONCLUSION: Peripheral neuropathy was independently associated with decreased SV/PP, mainly through decreased SV, in patients with T2DM over 50 years.Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2013; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE.: Migraine is a common type of headache accompanied or preceded by signs of central and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction has been suggested to be a potential contributor to impaired cardiac diastolic function. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is characterized by normal left ventricular contractility but impaired ventricular relaxation. It is a growing clinical entity implicated in morbidity and mortality due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine if any relationship exists between migraine and diastolic dysfunction. METHODS.: Migraineurs (N = 55), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (N = 52) were evaluated by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Migraine-related disability in the previous 3 months was assessed by the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaire. Baseline characteristics were recorded, and blood samples were collected. RESULTS.: The groups did not differ in terms of sex or age. The migraine group had higher lipid levels compared with the control group. Diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher among the 30 migraineurs with a history of migraine of 10 years or more compared with the 25 migraineurs with a history of less than 10 years, (P = 0.003). In logistic regression analysis, migraine duration was shown to be an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.130, 95% confidence interval, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS.: Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with migraine. A long history of migraine is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction.Pain Medicine 04/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the relation between diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) free of coronary artery disease (CAD) or hypertension. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was established by ≥2 abnormal autonomic nervous function tests. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by resting radionuclide ventriculography. Compared with non-DAN patients (n = 24), patients with DAN (n = 35) had an increased adjusted atrial contribution to ventricular filling (A/V%, 30.1% ± 8.2% vs 26.5% ± 5.1%; P = .031), suggestive of diastolic dysfunction (DD). There were no differences between the 2 groups in peak filling rate, first 1/3 filling fraction, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and cardiac index. Patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy had an increased heart rate (77.8 ± 6.3 vs 69.3 ± 3.3 bpm; P < .0001) and a higher rest LV workload (10 072 ± 1165 vs 8606 ± 1075 bpm mm Hg; P < .0001). Patients with DAN T2DM without CAD or hypertension have DD, increased A/V index, and a higher LV working load than non-DAN patients.Angiology 11/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor