Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy contributes to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography
Institute for Heart and Circulation Research, University Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany. Diabetic Medicine
(Impact Factor: 3.12).
03/2011; 28(3):311-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03221.x
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, both diagnosed according to the current guidelines.
We evaluated 145 patients referred for an elective coronary angiography, 52 of whom had Type 2 diabetes and 48 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 45 subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed using autonomic function tests, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was verified by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography.
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 (28.8%) patients with Type 2 diabetes and in six (12.5%) individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The rates of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were 81 and 33% in patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P < 0.001). In the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy group (n = 21), early diastolic relaxation velocity (Em) was significantly reduced (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1 cm/s; P < 0.001) and the E/Em ratio was significantly higher (13.6 ± 4.6 vs. 10.3 ± 3.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) as compared with the group without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (n = 79). These findings remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, hypertension and HbA(1c) . A severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was observed in 33 and 15% of patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P = 0.001).
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with a higher prevalence and a more severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography. Because both cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, screening for patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may identify those at high risk.
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Available from: Rafael Da Silva Luiz
- "Several studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated impaired autonomic function in rats and humans with DM , , –. Our results confirm previous studies from our laboratory that demonstrate a decreased AP and HR in sedentary diabetic rats . "
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ABSTRACT: Exercise training (ET) is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05). Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05). The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05), and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05). In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48826. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0048826 · 3.23 Impact Factor
- "Known risk factors in diabetes are hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, elevated total and VLDL-triglycerides, low HDL-C levels and less consistency and increased total and LDL-C levels. Because people with diabetes have almost two- to four-fold increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, the control of high-glucose levels and other attending coronary heart disease risk factors implicating high-lipid profile expresses the most competent approach to inhibition. Obesity is considered as one of the strongest risk factors for type 2 diabetes manifestation. "
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Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels.
Materials and Methods:
Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes.
In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats.
The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients.
Pharmacognosy Magazine 03/2012; DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.93328 · 1.26 Impact Factor
Available from: scindeks-clanci.ceon.rs
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ABSTRACT: Several cardiovascular manifestations in patients with diabetes may be asymptomatic. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is considered to be the earliest metabolic myocardial lesion in these patients, and can be diagnosed with tissue Doppler echocardiography. Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is a characteristic and frequently described form of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of LVDD and SMI in patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as to compare demographic, clinical, and metabolic data among defined groups (patients with LVDD, patients with SMI and patients with type 2 diabetes, without LVDD and SMI).
We investigated 104 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 55.4 +/- 9.1 years, 64.4% males) with normal blood pressure, prehypertension and arterial hypertension stage I. Study design included basic laboratory assessment and cardiological workup (transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler, as well as the exercise stress echocardiography).
LVDD was diagnosed in twelve patients (11.5%), while SMI was revealed in six patients (5.8%). Less patients with LVDD were using metformin, in comparison to other two groups (chi2 =12.152; p=0.002). Values of HDL cholesterol (F=4.515; p=0.013) and apolipoprotein A1 (F=5.128; p= 0.008) were significantly higher in patients with LVDD.
The study confirmed asymptomatic cardiovascular complications in 17.3% patients with type 2 diabetes.
Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 09/2011; 139(9-10):599-604. DOI:10.2298/SARH1110599S · 0.23 Impact Factor
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