Substance use among adolescents of parents living with HIV in New York City.
ABSTRACT We examined the relationship of community, interpersonal, and personal risk and protective factors to substance use among adolescents of parents with HIV (PWH). Families with HIV (n = 269 PWH and 409 adolescents) from New York City were recruited, and multivariate models were used to examine the associations. Adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity, substance use was positively associated in univariate analyses with parental substance use, family conflict, adolescent emotional distress, and adverse life events; having academically oriented friends and religiosity were protective. In the multivariate model, multiple problem behaviors (e.g., delinquency) and substance-using peers were significantly associated with substance use. The patterns of associations between the risk factors and substance use are similar to those of adolescents in families not impacted by HIV. Interventions aimed at improving parental care, reducing maladaptive peer networks, and decreasing problem behaviors are important strategies to explore in future prevention studies.
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ABSTRACT: Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction.Journal of Psychiatric Research 02/2012; 46(5):651-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.02.005 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Positive youth development interventions are strategies to address adolescent health risk behaviors and are recommended in Healthy People 2020. Although the incorporation of spirituality into these programs has been recommended, much of the empirical literature actually addresses religiosity rather than spirituality. The purpose of our review of 36 studies published between 2007 and 2013 was to (1) examine the relationship of religiosity and/or spirituality to substance use and abuse in adolescence, (2) discuss the measurement and meaning of the concept of spirituality in contrast to religiosity in adolescence, and (3) discuss the implications of these empirical studies for the concept of positive youth development. Findings from this literature review supported earlier findings of an inverse relationship between religiosity and substance use, a lack of or inconsistent definition of spirituality and religiosity as well as limited measures to address these constructs. Recommendations from this review include dedicated work by interdisciplinary teams to address consistency in definitions and creation of consistent tools that include consideration of the stages of development included in the adolescent years. From a research and clinical perspective, an interprofessional approach to clarify the concepts of spirituality and spiritual development would not only benefit research but could inform the substance abuse prevention field. This work is essential to insure that evidence-based strategies, which include religiosity and spirituality, are developed with the goal of protecting youth and supporting positive development of adolescents.Journal of Addictions Nursing 10/2013; 24(4):247-262. DOI:10.1097/JAN.0000000000000006 · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies.AIDS and Behavior 10/2014; 18:2051–2058. DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0744-9 · 3.49 Impact Factor