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The good viruses: viral mutualistic symbioses. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:99-108

Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Plant Biology Division, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401, USA.
Nature Reviews Microbiology (Impact Factor: 23.32). 02/2011; 9(2):99-108. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2491
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although viruses are most often studied as pathogens, many are beneficial to their hosts, providing essential functions in some cases and conditionally beneficial functions in others. Beneficial viruses have been discovered in many different hosts, including bacteria, insects, plants, fungi and animals. How these beneficial interactions evolve is still a mystery in many cases but, as discussed in this Review, the mechanisms of these interactions are beginning to be understood in more detail.

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    • "Viruses play important roles as pathogens and mutualists in many, if not all, forms of cellular life (Munn, 2006; Suttle, 2007; Roossinck, 2011) and undoubtedly have important but currently unknown functions in the coral stress response, coral disease, and the adaptive potential of the coral holobiont with respect to climate change (van Oppen et al., 2009; Thurber and Correa, 2011). Metagenomic characterization of coral-associated viruses is a first step towards elucidating these roles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reef-building corals form close associations with organisms from all three domains of life and therefore have many potential viral hosts. Yet, knowledge of viral communities associated with corals is barely explored. This complexity presents a number of challenges in terms of the metagenomic assessments of coral viral communities, and requires specialised methods for purification and amplification of viral nucleic acids, as well as virome annotation. In this mini-review, we conduct a meta-analysis of the limited number of existing coral virome studies, as well as available coral transcriptome and metagenome data, to identify trends and potential complications inherent in different methods. The analysis shows that the method used for viral nucleic acid isolation drastically affects the observed viral assemblage and interpretation of the results. Further, the small number of viral reference genomes available, coupled with short sequence read lengths might cause errors in virus identification. Despite these limitations and potential biases, the data show that viral communities associated with corals are diverse, with double- and single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses. The identified viruses are dominated by dsDNA-tailed bacteriophages, but there are also viruses that infect eukaryote hosts, likely the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., host coral, and other eukaryotes in close association.
    Environmental Microbiology 03/2015; online early. DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.12803 · 6.24 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, many parasitoid wasps species are known to harbor symbiotic viruses, and these viruses have a mutual relationship with their wasp host, particularly for host immune responses (Renault et al., 2005). As comprehensively reviewed by Roossinck (2011), the beneficial effects of viruses range from obligate mutualisms, in which the survival of the host is dependent on the virus, to benefits that occur only under specific environmental conditions. In addition, some of these relationships are ancient and the line between the virus and its host is blurry, and as the relationship between the aforementioned wasps and polydnaviruses has shown, some relationships are clearly symbiogenic. "
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    ABSTRACT: While largely studied because of their harmful effects on human health, there is growing appreciation that viruses are also important members of the animal holobiont. This review highlights recent findings on viruses associated with Hydra and related Cnidaria. These early evolutionary diverging animals not only select their bacterial communities but also select for viral communities in a species-specific manner. The majority of the viruses associating with these animals are bacteriophages. We demonstrate that the animal host and its virome have evolved into a homeostatic, symbiotic relationship and propose that viruses are an important part of the Hydra holobiont by controlling the species-specific microbiome. We conclude that beneficial virus-bacterial-host interactions should be considered as an integral part of animal development and evolution.
    The Journal of Microbiology 03/2015; 53(3):193-200. DOI:10.1007/s12275-015-4695-2 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Viruses play important roles as pathogens and mutualists in many, if not all, forms of cellular life (Munn, 2006; Suttle, 2007; Roossinck, 2011) and undoubtedly have important but currently unknown functions in the coral stress response, coral disease, and the adaptive potential of the coral holobiont with respect to climate change (van Oppen et al., 2009; Thurber and Correa, 2011). Metagenomic characterisation of coral-associated viruses is a first step towards elucidating these roles. "
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    ABSTRACT: This is the INCORRECT JOURNAL - see here for update: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1462-2920.12803/abstract Reef-building corals form close associations with organisms from all three domains of life and therefore have many potential viral hosts. Yet, knowledge of viral communities associated with corals is barely explored. This complexity presents a number of challenges in terms of the metagenomic assessments of coral viral communities, and requires specialised methods for purification and amplification of viral nucleic acids, as well as virome annotation. In this mini-review, we conduct a meta-analysis of the limited number of existing coral virome studies, as well as available coral transcriptome and metagenome data, to identify trends and potential complications inherent in different methods. The analysis shows that the method used for viral nucleic acid isolation drastically affects the observed viral assemblage and interpretation of the results. Further, the small number of viral reference genomes available, coupled with short sequence read lengths might cause errors in virus identification. Despite these limitations and potential biases, the data show that viral communities associated with corals are diverse, with double- and single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses. The identified viruses are dominated by dsDNA-tailed bacteriophages, but there are also viruses that infect eukaryote hosts, likely the endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium spp., host coral, and other eukaryotes in close association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Microbiology Reports 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12275 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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