Association between Physical Activity and Kidney Function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Impact Factor: 4.46). 12/2010; 43(8):1457-64. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31820c0130
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function.
Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used.
In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes.
When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.

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    • "A recent Cochrane review has highlighted the potential positive effects of regular leisure exercise on advanced CKD mainly through the improvement of cardiovascular risk (diabetes, high blood pressure) [11] [12] [13] [14] and aerobic capacity [11]. However, the effect of physical activity on early stages of CKD is not well-established [12], and few studies have focused specifically on it [15] [16] [17]. The eGFR is one of the essential determinants that characterize CKD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. The increase in CKD in recent decades has paralleled increases in obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor that may affect the development and course of CKD. It is well established that exercise training improves a number of metabolic factors, including blood pressure and insulin resistance, which would be expected to preserve renal function as well as lower CVD risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that partaking in vigorous physical activity may protect against kidney disease. However, to date few studies have rigorously measured physical activity levels. Instead, investigators have relied on subjective measures of physical activity and patient recall. This is particularly problematic when attempting to capture low- and very-low-intensity physical activity and in quantifying sedentary behavior. Improvements in vascular endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokine profiles, and oxidative stress likely mediate the benefits of physical activity on the kidney. While formal exercise recommendations have been published for diabetes and hypertension, guidelines regarding the optimal type, frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity for preventing CKD have yet to be formalized.
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    09/2011; 19(5):1066-73. DOI:10.1177/1741826711421301
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