Association between Physical Activity and Kidney Function: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease is a condition characterized by the deterioration of the kidney's ability to remove waste products from the body. Although treatments to slow the progression of the disease are available, chronic kidney disease may eventually lead to a complete loss of kidney function. Previous studies have shown that physical activities of moderate intensity may have renal benefits. Few studies have examined the effects of total movement on kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between time spent at all levels of physical activity intensity and sedentary behavior and kidney function.
Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the US population. Physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer and questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study formula. To assess linear associations between levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior with log-transformed estimated GFR (eGFR), linear regression was used.
In general, physical activity (light and total) was related to log eGFR in females and males. For females, the association between light and total physical activity with log eGFR was consistent regardless of diabetes status. For males, the association between light and total physical activity and log eGFR was only significant in males without diabetes.
When examining the association between physical activity, measured objectively with an accelerometer, and kidney function, total and light physical activities were found to be positively associated with kidney function.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.International Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 177(3):1036-1041. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.09.102 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. The increase in CKD in recent decades has paralleled increases in obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor that may affect the development and course of CKD. It is well established that exercise training improves a number of metabolic factors, including blood pressure and insulin resistance, which would be expected to preserve renal function as well as lower CVD risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that partaking in vigorous physical activity may protect against kidney disease. However, to date few studies have rigorously measured physical activity levels. Instead, investigators have relied on subjective measures of physical activity and patient recall. This is particularly problematic when attempting to capture low- and very-low-intensity physical activity and in quantifying sedentary behavior. Improvements in vascular endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, adipocytokine profiles, and oxidative stress likely mediate the benefits of physical activity on the kidney. While formal exercise recommendations have been published for diabetes and hypertension, guidelines regarding the optimal type, frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity for preventing CKD have yet to be formalized.01/2011; 1(3):164-173. DOI:10.1159/000329929
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Microalbuminuria (MAU) is a marker for endothelial dysfunction and a predictor of increased cardiovascular risk. Physical activity improves endothelial function. This analysis aims to explore the impact of regular physical exercise on the prevalence and the degree of MAU in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods and results: The International Survey Evaluating microAlbuminuria Routinely by Cardiologists in patients with Hypertension (I-SEARCH) studied the prevalence of MAU in 20,786 hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. Herein, we investigated the relationship between self-reported physical activity and MAU in relation to the number of cardiovascular risk factors, medication and co-morbidities. A total of 7123 patients (34.3%) performed regular physical exercise (moderate or strenuous, at least 4 hours per week). The prevalence of MAU was significantly lower in active than in inactive patients (54% vs 61%; P < 0.0001). This association was observed in all classes of blood pressure and heart rate and was similar in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was lower in active than in inactive patients (UAE 80 mg/l: 11.6% vs 13.5%, P < 0.0001; UAE 150 mg/l: 7.5% vs 10%; P < 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, heart rate, renal function, medication and comorbidities, regular physical activity was associated with a 25% lower risk for MAU (odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.67-0.84; P < 0.0001). Risk reduction for MAU was more pronounced in strenuously active (OR 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.95; P < 0.05) than in moderately active patients (OR 0.76; 95%CI, 0.68-0.85; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, physical activity is an independent predictor for a decreased risk of microalbuminuria.09/2011; 19(5):1066-73. DOI:10.1177/1741826711421301