The Role of Stem Cells in Cutaneous Wound Healing: What Do We Really Know?

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.99). 01/2011; 127 Suppl 1(1):10S-20S. DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181fbe2d8
Source: PubMed


Wound repair is a complex process involving the orchestrated interaction of multiple growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and cell types. Dysregulation of this process leads to problems such as excessive healing in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars and chronic, nonhealing wounds. These issues have broad global implications. Stem cells offer enormous potential for enhancing tissue repair and regeneration following injury. The rapidly developing fields of stem cell biology and skin tissue engineering create translational opportunities for the development of novel stem cell-based wound-healing therapies.

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    • "Cellular therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has the potential to address the underlying pathogenesis of impaired wound healing and accelerate tissue repair with more durable tissue integrity. This strategy may result in a more regenerative form of wound repair, with obvious implications for cutaneous wound healing, and any disease characterized by the increased fibroplasia, such as intra-abdominal adhesions, keloids, scleroderma, pulmonary/renal fibrosis, and hepatic cirrhosis.[8910] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are the key to regenerative wound healing. MSCs have spatial memory and respond to local environment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of systemic and intralesional transplantation of BMSCs for regeneration of oral mucosa in an in vivo dog model. Materials and Methods: Transplantation of undifferentiated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled autologous BMSCs systemically, submucosally or vehicle (saline) was injected around the chemically induced oral ulcer in each group of 18 adult dogs. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. One way ANOVA was used to compare between means of the three groups. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Flow cytometric analysis of the MSCs at the passage 3 showed that these cells were negative for CD45 (2.39%). They expressed high levels of CD29 (98.34%). Frozen fluorescence microscopy of sections of the cell-treated oral tissue of all groups indicated that the GFP-transduced implanted cells were integrated within the transplanted tissues. The treatment resulted in dramatic wound edge activation and resurfacing of oral mucosa wound. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMSCs may be labeled with (GFP), in order to know the distribution of these cells after administration, and suggest that intralesional administration is an appropriate procedure to achieve acceptable regeneration of the previously injured oral mucosa more than systemic route.
    Dental research journal 03/2014; 11(2):212-21.
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    • "Recent cell-based therapies for cutaneous lesions have combined bioartificial scaffolds and stem cells in order to improve skin regeneration [6]. In this scenario, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide several advantages, such as multipotentiality and the ability to expand in vitro for long periods [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: New strategies for skin regeneration are needed in order to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because of their prolonged self-renewal capacity, multipotentiality, and ability to release active molecules important for tissue repair. In this paper, we show that human skin-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SD-MSCs) display similar characteristics to the multipotent MSCs. We also evaluate their growth in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system with dermal substitutes (Integra and Pelnac). When cultured in monolayers, SD-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers, such as CD105, Fibronectin, and α-SMA; and neural markers, such as Nestin and βIII-Tubulin; at transcriptional and/or protein level. Integra and Pelnac equally supported the adhesion, spread and growth of human SD-MSCs in 3D culture, maintaining the MSC characteristics and the expression of multilineage markers. Therefore, dermal substitutes support the growth of mesenchymal stromal cells from human skin, promising an effective tool for tissue engineering and regenerative technology.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89542. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089542 · 3.23 Impact Factor
    • "Embryonic stem cells are formed from the inner cell mass of a pre-implantation blastocyst.[18] These have the potential to differentiate into any type of cell (multipotent). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic wounds continue to be a major challenge for the medical profession, and plastic surgeons are frequently called in to help in the management of such wounds. Apart from the obvious morbidity to the patient, these problem wounds can be a major drain on the already scarce hospital resources. Sometimes, these chronic wounds can be more taxing than the underlying disease itself. Although many newer methods are available to handle such situations, the role of stem cells in the management of such wounds is an exciting area that needs to be explored further. A review of literature has been done regarding the role of stem cells in the management of chronic wounds. The abnormal pathology in such wounds is discussed and the possible role of stem cells for optimal healing in such cases would be detailed.
    Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery 05/2012; 45(2):237-43. DOI:10.4103/0970-0358.101286
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