Reviewing once more the c-myc and Ras collaboration Converging at the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex and challenging basic concepts of cancer biology

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (Impact Factor: 5.01). 01/2011; 10(1):57-67. DOI: 10.4161/cc.10.1.14449
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The c-myc is a proto-oncogene that manifests aberrant expression at high frequencies in most types of human cancer. C-myc gene amplifications are often observed in various cancers as well. Ample studies have also proved that c-myc has a potent oncogenicity, which can be further enhanced by collaborations with other oncogenes such as Bcl-2 and activated Ras. Studies on the collaborations of c-myc with Ras or other genes in oncogenicity have established several basic concepts and have disclosed their underlying mechanisms of tumor biology, including "immortalization" and "transformation". In many cases, these collaborations may converge at the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex. In the meantime, however, many results from studies on the c-myc, Ras and cyclin D1-CDK4 also challenge these basic concepts of tumor biology and suggest to us that the immortalized status of cells should be emphasized. Stricter criteria and definitions for a malignantly transformed status and a benign status of cells in culture also need to be established to facilitate our study of the mechanisms for tumor formation and to better link up in vitro data with animal results and eventually with human cancer pathology.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael P Lisanti, Jul 04, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) gene is an X-linked gene that is submitted to inactivation. It is an essential transcription factor in CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3 regulatory T cells, which are therapeutic targets in disseminated cutaneous melanoma. Moreover, FoxP3 is an important tumor suppressor gene in carcinomas and has putative cancer suppressor gene function in cutaneous melanoma as well. Therefore understanding the structure and function of the FoxP3 gene is crucial to gaining insight into the biology of melanoma to better develop immunotherapeutics and future therapeutic strategies.
    Molecular oncology 04/2011; 5(2):156-63. DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2011.03.001 · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BRM is an ATPase component of the SWI/SNF complex that regulates chromatin remodeling and cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor. In this study we characterized transcripts from the Smarca2 gene that encodes the BRM protein. We found that the human Smarca2 gene (hSmarca2), like its mouse counterpart (mSmarca2), also initiated a short transcript from intron 27 of the long transcript. We name the long and short transcripts as Smarca2-a and Smarca2-b, respectively. Like its human counterpart, mSmarca2-a also underwent alternative splicing at the 54-bp exon 29. The hSmarca2-b had two alternative initiation sites and underwent alternative splicing at three different 3' sites of exon 1 and at exons 2, 3 and/or 5. We identified nine hSmarca2-b mRNA variants that might produce five different proteins. mSmarca2-b also underwent alternative splicing at exon 3 and/or exon 5, besides alternatively retaining part of intron 1 in exon 1. Smarca2-b was expressed more abundantly than Smarca2-a in many cell lines and was more sensitive to serum starvation. Moreover, cyclin D1 also regulated the expression of both Smarca2-a and Smarca2-b in a complex manner. These data suggest that the functions of the Smarca2 gene may be very complex, not just simply inhibiting cell proliferation, and in certain situations may be elicited mainly by expressing the much less known Smarca2-b, not the better studied Smarca2-a and its products BRM proteins.
    Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 2:386-400. · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a drug used for treatment of many types of malignancy but pancreatic cancer is relatively resistant to it. This study aims to determine whether and how cyclin D1 (D1) and c-Myc influence the response of pancreatic cancer cells to CDDP. Ela-mycPT mouse pancreatic cancer cells were transfected with D1 or c-myc cDNA and treated with CDDP alone or together with NPCD, an inhibitor of cyclin dependent ckinase (CDK) 4 and 6. Reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assays were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of interested genes. Cell viability was determined using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Treatment of Ela-mycPT1 cells with CDDP caused an increase in c-myc expression but a slightly latent decrease in D1 expression, whereas D1 and c-Myc proteins repressed each other. D1 or c-Myc rendered Ela-mycPT1 cells resistant or sensitive, respectively, to CDDP. D1 induced the expression of several members of the NF-κB family, including RelA, RelB, Nfκb1 and Nfκb2. D1 also induced BIRC5 and several pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 gene family, including Bcl-2 , Mcl-1 and Bad while it decreased the level of the pro-apoptotic Noxa. Inhibition of CDK4 or CDK6 kinase activity by NPCD did not affect these effects of D1. In contrast, c-Myc in Ela-mycPT1 and Ela-mycPT4 cells has the opposite effects to D1 on the expression of most of these apoptosis regulating genes. Our results suggest that induction of c-Myc and inhibition of D1 may be mechanisms for CDDP to elicit cytotoxicity. On the other hand, D1 induces whereas c-Myc represses the expression of key NF-κB family members to induce and repress, respectively, the expression of BIRC5 and several Bcl-2 family members, in turn inhibiting or enhancing the response to CDDP.
    Journal of Carcinogenesis 11/2011; 10:24. DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.90437